Tema 10.

                                           


centraluri da samxreT amerikis turistuli potenciali

centraluri amerika moicavs iseT qveynebs, rogoricaa: pana­ma, belizi, kos­ta-ri­ka., gvate­mala, nikaragua, sal­va­dori da hi­ndurasi. maT Soris Cven ganvixilavT panamasa da kosta-rikas turistul qveynebs.

 

nawili 1.

panamis turistuli potenciali da misi amoqmedebis Taviseburebani

panama aris patara saxelmwifo, romelic mdeba­re­obs Crdilo da samx­reT amerikis sazRvarze. mi­si deda­qalaqia pana­ma. Taviseburia qveyanaSi dasaxlebul indiel tom­Ta ku­lturac. aq turistebs SeuZliaT adgi­lob­ri­vi xelosne­bisagan, suveniris saxiT, SeiZinon indu­ri yofa-cxovre­bis atributebi, kalaTebi da patara skulpturebi. erTg­var unikalurobas warmoadgens qveynis flora da fauna. aq aris araCveulebrivad gans­xvavebuli mcenareebis da fri­nvelebis samyaro. qveynis met-naklebad popularul ero­vnul parkebs warmoadgenen: metropoliteni da ekologi­uri nakr­Zali _ el-vaie-de-antoni, romelic mdebareobs vu­lkanuri warmo­Sobis kraterze. qveynis dedaqalaq­Tan axlos, wynari okeanis sanapiroze, mdebareobs STambeWdavi plaJebi: horgonas, koronados, san-kar­lo­sis, rio-maris, koronasa da faralonis plaJebi.

belizisa da kosta-rikas turistuli potenciali

belizi aris didi britaneTis yofili kolonia, romelic mdebare­obs ukatanis naxevarkunZulis aR­mosavleT mxareSi. qveynis dedaqalaqia bel-mopani aq da­toves mravalricxovani arqiteqturuli Zeglebi. turistul bizness am qveyanaSi akontrolebs uc­xouri kapitali, rac dakavSirebu­lia problemeb­Tan, kerZod ga­remo pirobebis dacvisa da agreTve infla­ciis proble­masTan. saqme imaSi mdgomareobs, rom adgilobriv mosax­leo­basTan SedarebiT ucxo­eli turistebis ufro maRa­li msyidvelunarianoba iwvevs fasebis zrdas. saxelmwifo mxars uWers ekoturizmis ganviTarebas.

kosta-rika centralur amerikaSi mdebare pata­ra sa­xelmwifoa. qve­ynis de­daqalaqia san-xose. qveyanaSi saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTareba dakavSirebulia veluri bu­nebis didi masi­vebis arsebobasTan. qveynis aRmosav­leTiT mdebareobs maradmwvane tye, xolo dasavle­TiT ki_sava­neebi da foTolcvenadi tyeebi. qveya­nas gaaCnia erovnuli parke­bic: kor­kovados, brau­li-ka­rilos, Cir-rikosa da anto­nio manuelas parkebi.

karibis teritoriebisa da kunZulovan saxelmwifoTa turistuli potenciali

karibis qveynebs ganekuTvneba: bahamis kunZulebi, kuba, dominikelTa res­pub­lika, iamaika, barbuda, ha­iti, virjiniis kunZulebi, barbadosi da a. S

bahamis kunZulebisa da kubas turistuli potenciali

bahamis kunZulebi _ mniSvnelovani turistuli raio­ni mdebareobs ame­ri­k­is SeerTebuli Statebis sanapiros­Tan siaxloves. misi dedaqalaqia nasau. nasau aris sakuro­rto centri. igi mdebareobs sa­erTaSoriso aero­porti­dan 16 km-is daSorebiT. aq funqcionirebs erT-er­Ti yvelaze cno­bili ka­zino. sul exlaxans gaixsna `ko­ral uorldis” wyalqve­Sa obse­ratoria. bahamis kunZu­lebze mdebareobs erovnuli parkebi da istoriuli mu­zeumebi, sadac eqsponirdeba Zveli induri kulturis Zeglebi.

kuba de­daqalaq _ havanas da mis garemocvaSi gadaWimulia di­debuli plaJebi. am qveyanas gaaCnia espanelTa batonobis droin­deli istoriuli RirsSesaniSnaobani: Zveli cixe-simagre, sami mefis Zegli, san-franciskos monaste­ri da a.S. kunZulze bevri sanaxaobaa, romelTa So­ris sainte­resoa qalaqi _ matan-dasi. kubis umsxvi­lesi saer­TaSo­riso donis kurortia varadeiro. turistebi cdiloben daaTvalieron havanis axlos mdeba­re mweral ernest hemingueias saxl-muzeumi.

dominikis respublikis turistuli potenciali

dominikis respublika. es aris stabiluri po­litiku­ri da ekonomikuri sistemis mqone qveyana, romelsac pa­tivs scems mTeli msoflio sazogado­eba. is mimzidve­lia ucxoeli investorebisTvis anu xelsayrelia tu­rizmis ganviTarebisaTvis. respub­likis dedaqalaqia santa-domingo. aq yovelw­liurad izidavs 2 mln-mde turists. swored am ku­nZulidan daiwyo qristefore kolumbim amerikis aRmoCena da Seswavla. amitom aq qristef­ore kolu­mbis sapativcemulod agebulia grandiozuli memo­riali _ Zegli da piramidis saxis muzeumi.

iamaikisa da barbadosis turistuli potenciali

iamaikis kunZuli mdebareobs karibis zRvis Sua cen­trSi, kubisagan samxreTiT Tana­medrove etapze igi gadaiq­ca dasvenebis cnobil adgi­lad. iamaikis dedaqala­qia kingstoni. kunZulze mravlad aris lamazi plaJebi. gansa­kuTre­biT popularulia montego-beis axlos mdeba­re das­venebis zona. am sakurorto zonaSi didia sastum­roebis, restornebis da maRazie­bis arCevani. wyalqve­Sa parki aq izidavs RrmawyalSi curvis mo­yvarulebs. kunZuls gaaCnia golfis saTamaSo moe­dani. montego-beis mezoblad mdeba­reobs Zveli sa­xlebi. aq turistebma SeiZleba daaTvalieron tro­pikuli kulturebi. iamaikis cnobil kurortebs wa­rmoadgenen agreTve negrilis, oC­o-riosis da port-antonios kurortebi. kunZulze kli­mati tropikulia. montego-beis sakurorto zona (iamai­ka) mdebareobs kubidan CrdiloeTiT.

barbadosi aris bunebrivi silamazis, ro­manti­kis, dasvenebisa da Tavga­dasavlebis gasaocari ko­mbinacia. turizmi iTvleba am qveynis ekonomikis erT-erT wamy­van dargad. qveyana msoflioSi cnobi­lia dide­buli vardi­s­ferqviSiani plaJebiT. zRvis sanapiro­ze mdebareobs samefo wris warmo­madgene­lTa Zeglebi. ukve samasi welia barbadosSi iwar­moeba cnobili alko­holuri sasmeli _romi. qveynis dedaqalaq_brijtaun­Si mdebareobs bevri arqiteq­turuli Zegli. maT Soris aris admiral helsonis Zegli. kunZulze aris erovnu­li parkebic. am parkebis veluri bunebis pirobebSi SemorCa tropikuli mce­nareebisa da cxovelebis unikaluri jiSebi. barba­dosSi kargadaa ganviTarebuli sastu­m­ro da turi­stuli infrast­ruqtu­ra. feSenebelu­ri kuro­rtebi mdebareobs mcire antilis, antigu­as, ar­ubas, sent-lusis, kuroSios da sxva kunZulebze.

samxreT amerikis turistuli potenciali

samxreT amerikaSi Sedis ve­nesuela, ekvadori, peru, Cile, pa­ragvai, argentina, urugvai, kolumbia, gaiana, suri­nami, brazilia, bo­livia, safrangeTis gviana, fol­klendis kunZulebi.

braziliis turistuli potenciali

brazilia warmoadgens tu­ristebisTvis yvela­ze popularul qveyanas. es aris samxreT ameri­kis ums­x­vilesi qveyana. braziliis dedaqalaqis rio-de-Janeiros mTavar sim­bolos warmoadgens korkrvados mTaze mdebare qristes Zegli. qalaqis kidev erT simbolos war­moadgens buxtu guanabaras SesasvlelSi mdebare cnobili kristaluri qandakeba `saharas Tavi”. ri­o-de-Janeiros wamyvan arqite­qturul Zegls warmoa­dgens koloniuri eklesiebi, san-bentosa da san-an­tonios monastrebi. am qalaqSi aris bevri muzeumi: erovnuli isto­r­i­u­li muzeumi, xe­lovnebis erovnu­li muzeumi da a. S. rio-de-JaneiroSi Catarebul festiva­lze yovel wels miemgzavreba aTiaTasobiT turisti, raTa isini datkben am ulamazesi, musika­luri, `cecxlovani” sacekvao dResaswauliTa da mocekvaveTa Cac­mulobiT. qalaqis quCebi gaSenebu­lia ekvatoruli mima­rTulebiT. mTel msoflioSi farTod aris cnobili `ma­rakanas” udidesi safex­burTo moedani da kopa-kabanas, ipamenas, lebnonis okeanuri plaJebi, romelic CaZiru­lia qalaqis uki­dures samxreT-aRmosavleT mxareSi.

argentinis turistuli potenciali

argentina saerTa­S­o­riso turizmis ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT aranakleb mimzidveli qveyanaa. saxe­lwode­ba `argentina” warmoSobilia laTinuri sit­yvisagan `Ar­gentum”, rac niSnavs vercxls. warsu­lSi es qveyana dapyrobili hqonda espaneTis dampy­roblebs, ro­melTac XVI saukuneSi gadmocures ri­o-de-la-platas sanapiro da darwmundnen am miwis vercxliT simdidre­Si. argentinaSi SeiZleba gamo­yofili iqnes ramdenime bunebrivi zona da raioni, romelTac gaaCniaT ganumeo­rebeli Taviseburebebi da turistuli mimzidveloba. pa­mpa _ esaa didi farTobis nayofieri miwa, mdi­nareebiT. argentinis dedaqalaqia buenos airesi.

argentinis samx­reT provincias warmoadgens patagonia, sadac warmodgenilia sxva­dasxvagvari landSafti: tbe­biTa da mindvrebiT da­serili mTis masivebi, mdeloebi da platoebi. val­desis naxevarkunZuli, nue­vosa da san-xoses srutis wynari wyle­bi yove­lwliurad (ivnisidan dekembram­de) samxreT CineTis provicnidan_ `frankadan” iRe­ben TavianT cnobil stumrebs. madri­nis porti war­moadgens valdesis naxevarkun­Zulze turiste­bis eqskursiaze dasasveneblad gamgzavn punqts. 1980-ian wlebSi is gadaiqca turistul centrad. santa-krusis provincia (wminda jvari)_ es aris ja­dosnuri adgili, sruliad sxvadasxvagvari da imavd­roulad ganumeorebeli landSaftiT. mis sa­napiroze iS­leba usasrulo atlantikis plaJebi, xolo kordilere­bi ki turistebis win avlenen Ta­vianT siamayes _ mTebs, parkebsa da myinvarebs. mTavari qalaqia santa.

nawili 2.

venesuelas turistuli potenciali

krusadan 300 km-is daSorebiT mdebareobs el-kalafate. aqedan iwyeba los-glasiaresis erovnuli Zegli, perito-morenos cno­bili myinvariT. ce­cxlovani miwis kunZuls uw­odeben `samyaros dasalier miwas”. misi mTavari qa­laqi _uSuaia aris msoflios yvelaze samxreTu­li qalaqi da antarqtidis karibWe. uSuaia niSnavs `da­savleTamde misaRwev srutes”. adgilobrivi tbe­bi saSualebas iZleva turistebma daa­Tvalieron sxva­dasxva jiSis frinvelebi. zRvis kruizebi am adgi­lebS­i turizmis ganviTarebis kidev erTi damatebi­Ti SesaZleblobaa. erT-erTi maTgani gadis gvira­bisa da baklanTa uzarmazari koloniis gavliT, xolo adgi­lobrivi rkinigza, romelic gadis nakr­ZalSi, iwyeba `samyaros dasasrulis” sadguridan.

venesuelas uwodeben samxreT am­erikis `pa­tara venecias”.qveynis turistul resurss ganekuTvne­ba dedaqalaqi _ karakasi, or mTas Sua mdebare qalaqi, karibis zRvis sanapiroze mde­bare muzeumebi, qa­laqi marakaibo da meridis raioni. margaritas kunZuli aris qveynis mTavari kuro­rti, sadac ganlagebulia yvelaze msxvili sastum­ro komple­qsi. kunZulis turistul centrad SeiZ­leba CaiTva­los porlamari, pampatari, la-asunsio­ni, santu-anu, el-servado da xuan grisgo. qveyanaSi dasvene­bisaTvis yve­laze popularul adgils war­moadgens agreTve karibis zRvis sanapiro. aq turi­stebi SeiZleba dakavdnen Tevz­WeriT, curviTa da naos­nobiT. venesuelaSi mdebareobs samxreT ameri­kis yvelaze didi tba _ ma­rakaibo. orinokos mdina­re erT-erTi grZeli mdinarea msoflioSi. qveya­naSi xarobs sxvadasxvagvari, unikaluri flora da fau­na. aq amzadeben iaguars, ocelots. aq aris msof­lioSi yvela­ze grZeli gveli_anakonda. ekonomiku­ri Tvalsazri­siT, qveyana mniSvnelovnad aris da­mokidebuli navTobis mo­poveba-eqsportze. qveynis oficialuri ena aris espanuri.

venesuelasTan axlos mdebareobs patara kunZu­lova­ni saxelmwifoebi: trinidadi da tabako, aru­ba da kura­sao. mag, arubas kunZuli cnobilia imiT, rom aq mdebareobs, simZlavris mixedviT, msoflio­Si erT-erTi umsxvilesi navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxana. cxadia, es ar uSlis kunZuls xels imaSi, rom igi iyos dasvenebi­saTvis sakmaod prestiJuli adgili. kolumbias uwode­ben dasavleT eldora­dos qveyanas, arqeologi­u­ri erov­nuli parkebis sa­mefos. qveynis turistul resursebs Se­iZleba ga­ne­kuTvnos dedaqalaqi _ bogotu, qalaqebi_kardagena da po­paiani, agreTve kolumbiis pa­rki, dalinus Zegli, los-katiosi da san-avgustini.

ekvadoris turistuli potenciali da misi gamoyenebis perspeqtivebi

ekvadori aris samxreT amerikis Crdilo-dasav­leTiT mdebare saxelm­wifo, romelic mdebareobs ekvatoris ga­swvriv. ekvadori esazRvreba wynar ok­eanes. qveynis deda­qalaqia quito, romelic mdebare­obs ulamazes, mogrZo dablobze zRvis donidan 2800 metris simaRleze. quito gamoi­rCeva mravali kulturul-istoriuli Tavisebure­bebiT da tradi­ciebiT. am qveynis arqiteq­turaSi turistma SeiZle­ba SeamCnios espanuri, holandi­uri da kolumbiuri stili. qalaqis yvelaze cnobil RirsSesaniSnaobas warmoadgens damoukideblobis moeda­ni, la-kompa­cias, san-franciskosa da san-diegos monast­rebi. Za­lian sainteresoa koloniuri xelovnebis muzeu­mi. ekvadori aris agrarul-industriuli qveyana, ro­me­lic erT-erT pirvel adgils iWers mTel msof­lioSi sabanko produqtebis eqsportis mixedviT. aq mniSvnelo­van moculobas aRwevs navTobis mopoveba.

ekvadoris bunebrivi peizaJebis mravalferovne­bam da ganumeoreblobam is gadaaqcia turizmis ga­nviTarebisa­Tvis mimzidvel qveynad. quito da gala­pago­sis kunZulebi iunesko-s mier aRiarebulia ka­cobriobis kultu­rul da bunebriv miRwevad. gala­pagosis kunZule­bi warmoadgens ekvado­ris ZiriTad turistul obieqts. popularobiT sargeb­lobs kun­Zulis plaJebi, TeT­ri da Savi feris pa­tara qvi­SiT. ekvadoris mTis raioni ikveTeba andes qseliT, romelSic Sedis daaxloebiT 200-ze meti vulkani. amitom am adgilebs uwodeben `vul­kanTa gamzirs”.

ekvadoris erT-erT ulamazes adgils warmoad­gens vulkan _Cimborasos mimdebare teritoria, ro­melic zRvis donidan simaRliT 6310 metrs aWar­bebs. aq gadis `eqspres-metropoliteni” _ erT-erTi yvelaze maRalmTi­ani rkinigza mTel msoflioSi, romelic mdebareobs mTebTan axlos. guaisis pro­vincia aRiarebulia plaJebiT. damsveneb­lebs turi­stebs aq daxvdebaT rbili klimati, kargi pirobebi wylis sportis dauflebisaTvis. qveyanaSi iTvlian 20-ze met erov­nul parksa da ekologiur nakrZals, romelTac uWiravT qve­ynis teritoriebis 16%. mag., erov­nul parkSi_`orien­ti” dgas ori Zegli, saseir­no bi­likebiT da sad­gomebiT aRWurvili rva dacu­li zona. amazonis erT-erT Rirsebas warmoadgens mdinare _ napo, sadac turistma saintereso mogza­uroba SeiZleba daas­rulos indiur xomaldze.

Ciles turistuli potenciali da misi amoqmedebis gzebi

Ciles teritoria gadaWimulia wynari okeanis sanapi­rodan 4300 km-is farglebSi, sadac ganlage­bulia andebis mTebi (6880 metris simaRliT). maT Soris mdebareobs mo­grZo formis xeoba _ qveynis mTavari ekono­miku­ri raio­ni. administraciuli Tva­lsazrisiT, Cile Sedgeba 13 mxaris da 40 provinci­isagan. Sromis saerTaSoriso da­nawilebaSi qveyana, pirvel rig­Si, cnobilia rogorc spilenZis erT-erTi msxvili mwarmoebeli da eqspo­rtio­ri. Ciles dedaqalaqia santiago. qveynis istoriaSi bev­ria mniSvne­lovani saukune. es aris adgilobrivi indie­lebis mravalsaukunovani brZola espanel dampyro­bleb­Tan, samxreT amerikis qveynebSi salvador al­endes pirveli socialisturi mmarTveloba da pi­noCetis dro­ebiTi mma­rTveloba, romelmac Ciles daubruna ameri­kuli zegavlena.[1] unikaluria qvey­nis bunebac. CrdiloeTiT mdeba­re­obs atakamas gaS­lili sivrce, rom­lis mTvariani peiza­Ji did­xans daamaxsovrdeba Camosul turistebs.

wynar okeaneSi mdebare pasxis kunZulze aRmar­Tulia mravalsauku­nova­ni, didebu­li, amoucno­bi qvis qandakeba_pana-nui. ukiduresi samxreTiT mdeba­re giga­nturi aisbergi mowmobs an­tarqtidis siax­loves. adgi­lobriv RirsSesaniSnao­bas warmoad­gens cecxlovani mi­wis kunZuli, rome­lic mdebareobs ukidures samxreTiT. Tavisi dasa­xelebiT kunZuli daaarsa cnobilma mezRva­urma ma­gelanma 1520 wels, romelmac Tavisi xomaldidan am adgilebSi SeamC­nia xanZris mravali kera. maTi warmoqmnis mizezebi dRemde ucno­bia. erT-erTi ver­siis Tanaxmad, kunZu­lis aborege­nebma (im droisaT­vis kunZulze mcxov­rebma tome­bma), romelTac koconi da­a­nTes Tevzis Sesaw­vavad. swored es cecxli dainaxa magelanma.

bolo wlebSi Ciles aRiareba moutana Rvinis warmo­ebam. dReisaTvis Cileze amaxvileben yuradRe­bas evrope­li mewarmeebi, radganac TavianT qveyana­Si Rvinis warmo­ebaze gaweuli danaxarjebi gaci­lebiT ufro maRalia, vidre CileSi. Ciles Rvinom SeaRwia postsabWour qveyne­bSic, radganac mas gan­sakuTrebuli ar­omati da SedarebiT dabali fasi aqvs. cecxlovani miwa _ arqipelagi mdebareobs sa­mxreT amerikis ukidures samxreT nawilSi, rome­lic xmeleTidan gamoyofilia magelanis srutiT. misi dasavleTi ekuTvnis Ciles, xolo aRmosavleTi ki _ argentinas.

urugvais, paragvais respublikisa da perus turistuli RirsSesaniSnaobani

urugvai aris ganviTarebuli turistuli infra­stru­qturis mqone qveya­na. igi iTvleba samxreT ame­rikis erT-erT usafrTxo qveynad. urugvai ste­ril­izebuli agraruli specializaciis mqone qveyanaa. misi ekono­mikis ga­nviTrebis safuZvels warmoa­dgens xorcis warmoeba. memcenareoba daspeci­ali­zirebulia marcvleulis _ xo­rblis, simindisa da mzesumziris moyva­naze. imis Sede­gad, rom qveynis kolonizaciis periodSi adgilobrivi in­dieli mo­saxleoba sruliad iqna ganadgurebuli, uru­gvais mosaxleoba Sedgeba mxolod sxvadasxva qveynidan Camosuli imigrantebisagan. ucxoe­li turistebisa­Tvis urugvai kidev imiTac aris saintereso, rom qveyana mde­bareobs dedamiwis samxreT naxevarsfe­roSi, sadac kli­mati SeiZleba swrafad gadavides zamTridan pirdapir zafxulSi, da _ piriqiT. ianv­ris saSualo temperatura aq Seadgens 22-240-s.

qveynis dedaqalaqia montevideo, romelic war­moad­gens Tanamedrove msoflios erT-erT msxvil safinanso centrs. mis arqiteqturaSi Sezave­bulia sxvadasxva stilisa da epoqis elementebi: baroko, mo­derni da ko­loni­uri periodi. urugvais presti­Juli kurortebi ganlage­bulia dedaqa­laqis aRmo­savleTiT. maT ricxvs ganekuTv­neba atlantida, pi­riapolisi, minasi da sero-pan-de-azka­ri. prestiJuli kuror­tia pun-ta-del-este.

paragvais respublika mdebareobs samxreT-ameri­kuli kontinentis SigniT, romelic ekonomikurad yvelaze ufro CamorCenili qveyanaa laTinur ame­rikaSi. misi ekonomikis ganviTare­bis safuZvels wa­rmoadgens xorcis warmoeba. paragvaiSi turistebi Camodian ZiriTadad erovnuli parkebisa da nakrZa­lebis dasaTvaliereblad. mis yvelaze sain­tereso raions warmoadgens gran-Cakos mxare. es aris ve­luri bunebis yvelaze didi rezervu­ari mTel sam­xreT amerikaSi. qveynis dedaqalaqia asunsioni.

perus saxelmwifo mdebareobs samxreT amerikis te­ritoriaze. igi CrdiloeTiT esazRvreba kolum­biasa da ekvadors, aRmosavleTiT _ bra­zi­liasa da bolivias, xo­lo samxreTiT ki _ Ciles. qveyana ga­moirCeva wyna­ri oke­a­nis wylebiT. misi dedaqalaqia lima. perus sanapiroze saSualo temperatura mer­yeobs 150-dan 280-mde. qveynis 25 milioniani mosax­leobidan daaxloebiT naxevari adgi­l­obrivi indi­elia. espanurenovani peruelebi ZiriTadad cxov­robs wynari okeanis sanapiroze, xolo qalaqebSi mcxo­vrebTa mniSvnelovan nawils Seadgens imigran­tebi, kerZod iaponelebi da Cinelebi. Tanamedrove perus teritoria iyo inkoTa impe­riis centri, romelic XVI saukuneSi daipyro espa­neTis ko­lonizatorebma. peruSi turistebi ZiriTa­dad Camodian mravalricxovani piramida-Zeglebisa da adgilobrivi kulturuli cixe-simagreebis gac­nobis mizniT, romelic dRemde Cakargu­lia jung­lebSi. perus teritoriaze mdebareobs samxreT ame­rikis erT-erTi yvelaze maRalm­Tiani tba _ titika­ka (misi nawili mdebareobs bo­li­viis sazRvrebSi). swored SiaSbefkis raionSi adgi­lo­brivma indiele­bma daiwyes kartofilis pirveli jiS­is gamoyvana, romelic Semdeg gavr­ce­lda mTel msoflioSi.

fizikur-geogra­fiuli TvalsazrisiT, perus te­ritoria SeiZleba dav­yoT sam raionad. esenia: wyna­ri okeanis sanapi­roze mdebare_kosta, mTiani ad­gi­li _ serra, da amazonis ekvatoruli tye _ selva. kosta mdebareobs wynari okeanis sanapiroze, ro­me­lic turistebisaTvis mimzidvelia Tavisi xis, pa­tara saxlebiT, sadgomebiTa da gareuli cxovele­bis joge­biT. tu­ristebis umravlesobisaTvis aq ga­momgzavrebis umTavresi mizania daina­xos qveynis adgilobriv mcxov­rebTa _ indilelebis yofa-cxov­reba. amis misaRwevad ki saWiroa isini gaemgzavron qveynis sustad ganviTarebul raionebSi, kerZod ki _ amazonis dasaxlebaSi, xolo Ta­namedrove garTo­ba (kafe-barebi, restornebi da diskote­kebi) ki maT SeuZliaT naxon qveynis dedaqalaqSi. qveyanaSi gan­viTarebulia samTo-mompo­vebeli mrewve­lobis dar­gebi. aq mimdinareobs navTobis, gazis, aluminisa da spilenZis mopoveba. peru iWers wamyvan adgils vercxlis mo­povebis sferoSi.

Tavi 9.


saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTarebis Taviseburebani amerikaSi

nawili 1.

rogorc avRniSneT CrdiloeT ameri­kis kontine­nti mdebareobs dedami­wis CrdiloeT da dasavleT naxevarsferoSi, xolo samx­reT amerika ki mdeba­re­obs deda­miwis dasavleT da samx­reT naxevarsfero­Si. Tanamedrove etap­ze, turizmis ganviTarebis mi­xed­viT, amerika meore adgils iWers evropis Sem­deg. deda­miwis am nawi­lis sxvadasxvagvari turis­tuli resur­si ganapi­robebs turizmis mravali sa­xeobis ganviTarebas. rogorc cno­bi­lia, amerika `SecdomiT” aRmoaCi­nes mogvi­anebiT. es `udidesi ge­ografi­uli Secdo­ma” dauSva qristefore kolumbma 1492 wels. kolu­mbi mi­cu­rav­da indoeTSi, magram `SecdomiT” aRmoC­nda amerika­Si, swored es regioni cnobilia “vest-indo­eTis” saxelwodebiT. rogorc am samyaros na­wili, amerika Sedgeba ori Zi­riTadi sub-regionisa­gan. es­enia: 1. Crdilo­eT- da 2. la­Tinuri amerika. laTinu­ri amerika, Ta­vis mxriv, moicavs centra­lur da samxreT amerikas. ameri­kas mi­e­kuTvneba kun­Zulovani qveynebi da kari­bis auzis terito­riebi. CrdiloeTi da centralu­ri amerika, upirveles yov­lisa, war­modgenilia sa­mi umsxvilesi qveynis: ame­rikis SeerTebuli State­bis, kanadisa da meqsikis saxiT. turizmma agreTve ganviTareba hpova centra­luri ameri­kis patara sa­xelmwifoebSic_ kosta-rikaSi, belizSi da sxvebSi. CrdiloeT amerikis yvelaze ufro ganviTare­bul qveyanas warmoa­dgens amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi.

 

CrdiloeT ameri­kis regionis turistuli potenciali

CrdiloeT ameri­kas ekuTv­nis aSS, kana­da, meqsi­ka gre­nla­ndia da dominika;.

amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis turistuli potenciali

amerikis SeerTebul Statebs gaaCnia gansakuT­rebuli  bunebrivi da istoriul-ekonomikuri Tavi­sebure­bani. aq mdebareobs koldirielebis maRali mTebi, didebu­li, saSualo simaRlis Zveli apala­Cebis mTebi, romelic qmnis aerodinamiuri milebis efeqts. haeris masebi Tavi­suflad miedinebian samx­reTidan CrdiloeTiT, romelic ar xvdeba Semx­vedr nakadebs. yovelive es ki iwvevs amin­dis swraf cvlilebas.

amerikel ers xSirad uwodeben `mcurav xalxs”, imis gamo, rom igi Camoayalibes mTeli msoflio­dan Camosul imigrantTa nakadma. amerike­le­bi mobiluri eria. aSS-s moqalaqeebi, xSi­rad cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi ra­m­denjerme icv­lian mud­miv sacxovrebel adgils, erTi Statidan meoreSi gada­saxlebis dros. es asaxvas hpoulobs amerikelTa dasve­nebis Tavis­ebu­rebebzec. dasvene­bis yvelaze ufro popu­larul saxeobas warmoad­gens (wyvilmisabmeliani) trai­leris avtomobile­biT mgzavroba. amerikel moqalaqeTa rekreaciul moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebis mizniT Se­iqmna av­tomagistralis specialuri qseli, romelic maT saSualebas aZlevda gadaekveTaT qveyana nebismieri mima­rTulebiT, raTa maT SesaZlebloba hqonodaT ufro me­ti dainteresebiT, dawvrilebiT gacnobo­daT amerikis yve­la kuTxes. am mizniT axdenen gasa­rTobi parkebis, kempi­ngebis, turiz­misa da dasvene­bis zonebis organizebas.

amerikaSi ganviTarebulia Sida turizmi, xolo uc­xoel turistTa yvelaze mZlavri nakadi moedi­neba mosa­zRvre meqsikidan da kanadidan. amerikaSi saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTareba dakavSirebu­lia aq bevri msxvili qalaqis gaSenebasTan: niu-iorki, vaSingtoni, maiami, los-anjelesi, san-fran­cisko, las-vegasi da sxvebi.

niu-iorki warmoadgens aSS-s erT-erT mniSvne­lova­n safi­nanso, ekonomi­kur, politikur da kul­turul centrs. aq aris qveynis mTavari porti. niu-iorkis savi­zito ba­raTia Tavisuflebis qandakeba. aSS-s finansuri siZlie­ris simbolod iTvleba uol-striti. aq ganlage­bulia birJebi, bankebi da sabrokero firmebi. qalaqis yvelaze cnobili Rir­sSesaniS­naobaa gaero-s Stab-bina da niu-ior­kis sa­fondo birJa. niu-iorkSi kidev arse­bobs bevri sxva eqskluziuri adgilic. qalaqis cnobil RirsSesa­niSnaobas warmoadgens bruk­linis grandiozu­li (ori kilometris sigrZis mqone) xi­di, romelic ma­nxetens aerTianebs long-ailendTan.

moqalaqeebs uyvarT dasveneba qalaqis centra­lur parkSi. aq turis­tebma SeiZleba daaTvalieron manxete­nis ZirZveli geologiuri RirsSesa­niSnaoba­ni. niu-iorki cnobilia Tanamedrove xelovnebis am­saxveli muzeu­me­biT, amerikel indielTa martivi xelovnebiT da a. S. turistebi xSirad Tavs aride­ben qalaqis metropolite­niT mgzavrobas (romel­sac uwodeben niu-iorkis `Zrava­sac”) mZarcvelebis mxridan mosalodneli saSiSroebisa da uhaerobis gamo, magram xSirad metro warmoadgens transpo­rtirebis erTaderT saxeobas, romelic saSua­lebas iZleva turistebma droulad daaRwion Tavi erT raions da rac SeiZleba swrafad miaRwion meore, maTTvis sasur­vel raionamde. niu-iorki kosmoli­turi qalaqia. aq cxo­vrobs mravali erovnebis ada­miani. mag., Cinuri kvartali `Cainatauni” cnobilia Tavisi restornebiT, sadac msurvelebs SeuZliaT iafad miirT­van saWmelebi, xolo garlemi ki warmoadgens usafrTxo adgils.

aSS-s dedaqalaqia vaSingtoni. administraciu­li Tva­lsazrisiT, igi em­Txveva kolumbiis mxares. vaSi­ngtonis ZiriTad RirsSesaniSnaobas warmoa­d­gens TeTri saxli, kapitolia, aSS-s erovnuli mu­zeumi. mravalric­xovani turistebi moedinebian ka­nadis sazRvarTan mdeba­re tbis sanapiroze. Tav­da­pirvelad es raioni daaarses fermerebma, magram misi aRmavlobis ga­damwyvet faqto­r­ad iqca mrewve­lobis ganviTareba. tbispira qalaqebs So­ris umsx­vilesia Cikago, romelic mdebareobs niu-iorkis sa­pirispiro mxa­res birJebis, korporaciebis Stab-bi­nebi­sa da caTambjenebis raodenobis mixedviT. tbis sanapi­ros samxreT nawili _ aSS-s erT-erTi yvela­ze mWid­rod dasaxlebuli adgilia. aq mdebareobs simindis burRu­lis Sesani­Sna­vi yanebi. tbispira dasaxlebis am nawilis sasoflo-sameurneo specia­lizaciam asaxva hpova adgi­lobrivi obieqtebis af­orizmul dasaxelebaSi..

amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis Crdilo-aRmosa­vleT nawilSi mdebare raioni atarebs `axali ing­lisis” saxe­lwodebas. es aris pirveli raioni, ro­melic daarsda evropeli dampyroblebis mier. am mxaris ekonomikis gan­viTarebis materialur safuZ­vels warmoadgens Sida tu­rizmi. axali inglisi amerikis erT-erTi inteleqtualu­ri centria. bos­to­nSi mdebare­obs sayovelTaod cnobi­li harvar­dis universiteti, xolo niu-xeivenSi (koneqti­kutis Stati)_aranakleb prestiJuli ielis universi­teti. axal inglisSi Camoyalibda amerikelTa erovnuli tipi. ase uwodes Sromis­moyvare koloniebs, romel­Tac maTi Sromismoyvareobis wyalobiT SeZles Ta­vi gaetanaT am mxaris mkacr bunebasTan brZolaSi.

amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis kontinentaluri na­wilis centrSi mdebareobs didi ravinis mTebi, romel­Tac ganedis mimarTulebiT kveTs qveynis yve­laze wya­luxvi mdinaris_misisipis dineba. didi ra­vinis pla­tos mTisZirze arsebuli ekologiuri an­omaliebis Sex­senebis mizniT samxreT Dakotas Sta­tSi 1978 wels daar­sda `bedlendsis” saxelobis erovnuli parki, romelic qarTulad niSnavs `su­lel miwas”. es aris kordileris mTisZirSi mdeba­re erT-erTi tipiuri adgili, garTule­buli buneb­rivi pirobebiT, romelic klimatis gauarese­bis Se­mTxvevaSi, ca swrafad moiqufreba Savi Rruble­biT da warmoiqmneba Zlieri qariSxali. mkveTrad daqa­nebuli mdinareebi, Sedegad movardnili wyali xSi­rad aiZulebs aq mcxovreb mosaxleobas Tavs mTeb­Si gaqce­viT uSvelon. am regionis adgilebis viwro wyalganayo­febad danawevrebis gamo, es miwebi uvar­gisia sameurneo daniSnulebiT gamoyenebisaTvis.

turistebSi mniSvnelovan interess iw­vevs samx­reT Statebis bu­nebrivi da socialur-kulturuli Taviseburebe­bi. ameri­kis SeerTebuli Statebis sam­xreT-aRmosav­leTiT mdeba­reobs floridis Stati, romelic cnobilia rogorc amerikeli moqalaqee­bis, ise uc­xoeTidan Camosuli tu­ristebis dasvene­bisaTvis mimzidvel raionad. maiami ar­is am Statis samxreTiT mdebare qalaqi, romelic cno­bi­lia Ta­visi lamazi plaJebiT, palmebiT, sastumroebiT, ni­angebis fermebiT, cnobil pirTa saxlebiTa da vi­le­biT. floridis centralur nawilSi mdebareobs qalaqi orlando, romelic cnobilia saojaxo das­venebis unika­luri centriT `disneis samyaros” sa­xelwodebiT. flo­ridis naxevarkunZulis samxreT daboloebaze gaSenebu­lia erovnuli parki `everg­ledsi”. cxeli tropikuli klimatisa da Warbi na­leqianobis pirobebSi aq yalibde­boda unikaluri bunebrivi kompleqsi. am adgilebisaT­vis damaxasia­Tebelia Waobiani tyeebi. am udides xeebs Zalian uyvarT wyali da bevrad ufro intensiurad izr­debian nizinis centrSi. zRvis sanapiros gaswvriv mimde­bare teritoriaze gaSenebulia mangrovis tye, rome­lic qmnis adamianebisaTvis gauval adgilebs.

dasavleT Statebis buneba da RirsSesaniSnao­bani izidavs mravalri­c­xovan turists. los-anje­lesi aris kaliforniis Statis umsxvilesi qa­laqi. `qalaqis Zieba­Si aRmoCenili asi qalaqispira dasa­xleba” _ ase uwo­de­ben los-anjelesis udides qa­laqs misi dagegmarebis specifikurobis gamo. los-anjelesisa da mis garSemo dasaxlebuli ganapira raionTa yve­laze saukeTeso Ri­rsSesaniSnaobas wa­rmoadgens holivudi _ kinos, tele­vi­ziis da radi­os legendaruli qalaqi, beverli-hilzi _ mdidre­bisa da kino-varskvlavebis kerZo vilebis raioni, disneilendi _ 60 atraqcionis Semcveli parki, san-fran­cisko (kaliforniis Stati) warmoadgens yve­laze lamaz qalaqs okeanis srutis gaswvriv mTel teritoriaze. mZlavri xide­bi qalaqis saqmian na­wils ukavSireben mis centralur dasaxlebasTan. maT Sorisaa cnobili xidi `oqros karebi”. san-francisko daarsda turis­te­bis in­tensiurad moZa­lebis Sedegad. es aris seqsualur umci­resobaTa moZrao­bis samSoblo da maTi msoflio dedaqalaqi.

mosaxleobis raodenobis mixedviT, kalifornia yve­laze umsxvilesia amerikis SeerTebul Statebs Soris. mas gaaCnia bevri sxva RirsSesaniS­naobac. erT-erTi maT­gania dalina smerti, romelic aRia­rebulia erovnu­li bunebrivi ZeglebiT. dalina smerti erT-erTi yvela­ze Rrma, udaburi da uwylo mxarea. zafxulobiT haeris temperatura aq aRwevs 600-s, xolo zamTarSi ki klimati Zlier susxiania. zafxulis cxeli haeris mase­bisa da zamTris auta­neli susxis monacvleoba am regi­onSi gazafxulis da Semodgomis sezonze iwvevs gamana­dgurebel, in­tensiur qariSxals. dalina smertma Tavisi saxeli SeiZina 1849 wels gaWirvebisgan Sewuxebu­li, oq­ros maZiebelTa jgufis am raionSi Semosvlis Semdeg.

sera-nevadas dasavleT mxares kaliforniaSi 1500 me­tris simaRleze gaSenebulia sekvoias erov­nuli parki, romelic gaixsna 1890 wels tyis masi­vebis dacvis miz­niT. aRniSnul parkSi gaSenebuli xeebi gigantur zo­mebs aRweven _ daaxloebiT 100 m simaRlisa da 10 metris diametric odenobiT. ame­rikis SeerTebuli Sta­tebis samxreT-dasavleTiT mdebare mTis udabnoebs xSi­rad uwodeben `cariel meoTxeds”. miuxedavad imisa, rom igi moicavs mniS­vnelovani farTobis teritoriebs, aq dasaxlebu­lia qveynis saerTo mosaxleobis mxolod 5%, mag­ram am adgilebis susxiani buneba Taviseburad mSve­niericaa. arizonas StatSi kolorados plato­ze ganvi­Tarda msoflioSi erT-erTi yvelaze Rrma da didi ga­moqvabuli. kolorados mdinare gadase­ravs am xeobas Tavis Sua dinebaSi. gamoqvabulis kedlebs aqvs sxvada­sxva feris cixe-simagris da pi­ramidis saxe. aq  parki Seiqmna 1919 wels. igi turistebs izidavs yvela qveynidan.

nevadas StatSi mdebare qalaq las-vegass uwo­deben `udabnos centrSi gaCaRebul cecxls”. qala­qma aRmav­loba ganicada ZiriTadad samTo bizne­sis ganviTarebis xarjze. kolosaluri sastumroe­bi, maTi kazinoebiT, aRweven mniSvnelovan war­matebas. mso­flios aTi umsxvi­lesi sastumrodan rva mdeba­reobs las-vegasSi. las-ve­gasi araa ub­ralo qalaqi, aramed igi aris saTamaSo kazinoebis `mTeli qveya­na”. Tanamedrove etapze masSi aRiric­xeba daaxloe­biT 500-mde saTamaSo dawesebuleba, romelTa­gan 30 yvelaze didia mTel msoflioSi. ramdens gamoimu­Saveben las-vegasis wamyvani saTama­So kazino­ebi? yvelaze maRali Semosavali aqvT `bakaraSi” saTama­So aparatebze dasaqmebul muSebs. RameSi di­leri iRebs 3000 dols.

kazinoSi samuSaod mowyoba ubralo msurveli­saTvis sakmaod Znelia, xSirad TiTqmis SeuZlebe­lic ki. las-vegaSi dabadebuli yoveli meore ada­miani moTamaSea. ba­vSvis bedi ganisazRvreba jer ki­dev dabadebisTanave. mas Tavidanve `ayeneben” kazi­noSi samuSaod ayvanis rigSi. amerikis Seer­Tebuli Statebis dasavleTiT mdebareobs mTel msoflioSi erT-erTi uZ­velesi da umsxvilesi ieloustonis erovnuli parki. parkSi mTis gora­ke­bsa da wiwvo­van tyeebs Soris gamoedineba geizerebi, romelTac gaaCniaT kuW-nawlavis daavadebaTa gankurvnis iSvi­aTi unari. iutas Stati cnobi­lia imiT, rom aq ga­v­rcele­bulia mormonTa religiuri seqta, romelic Cvens welTa aRricxvamde Zlier gavle­nas axdenda Statis cxovrebaze..

qveynis kontinentaluri nawilis sazRvrebs ga­reTY mdebareobs ori Stati _ havai da aliaska. ha­vais kunZu­lebi, romelic ekuTvneba amerikas, mdeba­reobs wynari okeanis centrSi. igi warmoadgens er­Tgvar `meqas” tu­ristebisa­Tvis. havai warmoqmnilia vulkanuri lavis amofrqvevis Sedegad. sacu­rao, wylis sporti, mzis abazanebi_tu­ristebis mTa­vari siamovnebaa. amerikis bevri macxovrebe­li specia­lurad midis havais kunZulebze imi­sa­Tvis, rom da­qorwindnen yovelgvari zedmeti formalobebis ga­reSe. alia­skas uwodeben xalxisgan mitovebul `Te­Tri siCumis mxares”. aq arsebobs bevri giganturi mTa, myi­nvarwverebi da mdinareebi, romlebic Caedi­nebian antarq­tikis yinulovan okeaneSi. aliaskaze aRmoaCines navTo­bis msxvili sabadoebi. es Stati amerikaSi aris xisa da celuloza-qaRaldis erT-erTi umsxvilesi mwarmoebeli. am Statis ekonomi­kis erT-erT mniSvne­lo­van nawils war­moadgens tu­rizmidan miRebuli Semosavlebi. aliaskaze mdebare qalaq _ ankoriJis aeroporti, tvirTbrunvis mixed­viT, erT-erTi umsxvilesi aeroportia mTel ameri­ka­Si. Stats gaaCnia rva erovnuli parki, maT Soris ameri­kis yvelaze umsxvilesi parki brangelia. ame­rikis bevri macxovrebeli Tavis mivlinebas swored aliaskaze atarebs.

dasvenebis popularul saxeobas aq warmoadgens Sta­tis sanapiros far­glebSi ganxorcielebuli sa­zRvao kruizi. turistebs SeuZliaT aq data­valie­ron erTmane­Tze gadajaWvuli mTebi da myinvarwve­rebi. amerika iTv­leba saganmanaTleblo turizmis mniSvnelovan centrad. aq mdebareobs prestiJuli universitetebi, romlebic izidaven bevr ucxoel students.

nawili 2.

kanadis turistuli potenciali da misi gamoyenebis SesaZleblobebi

 

kanadas, kunZulebis CaTvliT, msoflioSi yve­laze grZeli sanapiro xazi (244 aTasi km) gaaCnia. kanadi­sa da amerikis sazRvarze mdebareobs did tbaTa jgufi _ msoflioSi mtknari wylis rezer­vuaris yvelaze didi fa­rTobiT. kanadis yoveli raioni Sesa­niSnavia Taviseburad. ase mag., niufaun­dlendis sanapiroze mdebareobs aizbergebi, kana­dis aRmosavle­TiT mdebare, 10 000 welze meti xnis istoriis mqone erT-erTi provincia. es mcuravi yi­nulis mqone blokebi gasaocrad lamazi, didebuli da mimzidvelia. adgilob­rivma turistulma Indus­triam aizbergebi gadaaqcia am adgilis mTavar Ri­rsSesaniSnaobad. ontario aris, mosa­xleobis rao­denobis mixedviT, qveynis umsxvilesi pro­vincia. aq mdebareobs qveynis erT-erTi mWidrod dasax­lebu­li da ekonomikurad ganviTarebuli raio­nebi. pro­vinciaSi mdebareobs ramdenime aTeuli erovnuli Zegli, dau­saxlebeli CrdiloeT teritoriebi, di­di raodeno­biT xeluxlebeli da daubinZurebeli tbebi. aq mdebareobs otava da toronto. mravalri­cxovan turists aq izidavs niagaras CanCqeri.

kanada, dedaqalaq _otavaSi arsebobs erovnuli ga­lerea, kanadis muze­umi da sxvebi. toronto qveynis yve­laze didi qalaqia, ro­melic yvelaze multikulturu­lia mTel msoflio­Si. misi macxovreblebi laparakoben TiT­qmis 100 en­aze. torontoSi mdebareobs samefo muze­umi, Cinuri xelov­nebis cnobili koleqciiT. frangul enaze molaparake provincia kvebeki _ kana­dis erT-erTi umsxvilesi administraciul-te­ritoriuli erTeulia farTobis mixedviT. kvebeki xasiaTdeba mrava­lferovani peizaJebiT. am re­gionSi arsebobs mTis tba, didebuli tyeebi da sanapiro mxareebi. provin­ciaSi mde­bareobs kanadis uZvelesi qalaqebi _ kvebeki da monrea­li. qalaq _ kvebenSi Semo­naxulia Sua saukuneebSi age­buli mTeli raio­ni _ laTi­nuri kvartali.igi aRiarebulia iuneskos msoflio memkvidreobis Zeglad.

monreali _ es aris caTambjenebis qalaqi, Cqar­mava­li magistralebiT, msxvili saerTaSoriso sat­ranspor­to centri, qveynis sazRvao da sahaero ka­ribWe. imavd­roulad es aris mniSvnelovani istori­uli da kultu­ruli centri. qalaqSi bevri arqite­qturuli Zeglia, romelic daTariRebulia ZiriTa­dad XIX saukunis Sua periodiTa da dasasruliT: admiral helsonis svetebi, notr-damis samefo, dez-armis (samefo moedani) da sxva.

kanadis erT-erT ulamazes provincias warmoad­gens axali Sotlandia. igi sami mxridan garSemor­tymulia okeaniT. provincia cnobilia farTo pla­JebiTa da uam­ravi TevzmWeri soflebiT, erovnuli ZeglebiTa da in­duri rezervuarebiT. aq aris gan­lagebuli msxvili sai­axto centri _ iarmuti, ana­polSi mdebare frang dampy­robelTa parki _ same­fo porti. rogorc turistebisaT­vis, ise adgilob­rivi mcxovreblebisaTvis didi popula­robiT sar­geblobs zRvis sanapiroze Tevzaoba.

provincia _ manitoba sainteresoa mravalfe­ro­vani bu­nebiT. xSiri da Sereuli tyeebi, mravalric­xovani tbe­bi da mdinareebi, CrdiloeTis polaru­li tundra _ yvela­feri es qmnis unikalur, ganume­orebel peizaJs am adgi­lebSi. provinciis adminis­traciuli centria vinipegi (Winnipeg), rac qarTu­lad niSnavs `Warb wyals”. qalaqi cnobilia Tavi­si kultu­ruli cxovrebiT. masSi bevri muzeumi da Te­a­tria. igi cnobilia vinipegis popularuli samefo bale­tiT. manitobaSi kidev bevri sxva saintereso adgilia. aq mdebareobs istoriuli ubani_e. w. `ra­zvilka”, sa­dac odesRac indoeTis xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebi Sexvedrian adgilobrivi mTav­ro­bis muSakebs. fort-geri qalaq _ guSninois erT-er­Ti mniSvnelovani savaWro cen­tria. qalaq CerCils uwodeben `TeTri daTvis dedaqa­laqs”. provinciaSi mdebareobs am cxovelTa msoflioSi yvelaze samx­reTuli populacia. menitoba tbiani mxarea. um­sxviles tbas warmoadgens vinipegi.

saskaCevanis provincia aris stepuri da tbiani mxare, kontinentaluri klimatiT. provincia iTv­leba `kandis puris kalaTad”. aq iwarmoeba kanadu­ri xorblis didi nawili. provinciaSi arsebobs mravalricxovani mdinare­ebi da tbebi. saskaCevanSi cxovrobs germaniidan, skandi­naviidan da aRmosav­leT evropidan emigrirebuli adamia­nebi. amitom qa­laqSi igrZnoba swored am eTnikuri jgu­febis ero­vnuli gavlena. saskaCevanis dedaqalaq _ regi­nadan xdeba turebis organizeba atabaskas tbaze.

alberta aris kanadis umsxvilesi navTobmompo­vebeli provincia. aq mdebareobs qveynis `sanavTo­bo” dedaqala­qi_kalgari. garda amisa, es mxa­re Ta­visi lamazi pei­zaJebiT, dasavleTiT mdebare sali-kldovani mTebiTa da aRmosavleTis bunebis mSveni­eri landSaftiT, qmnis tu­rizmis ganviTa­rebisT­vis xelsayrel pirobebs. provin­ciis dedaqalaqs war­moadgens edmo­ntoni, romelic cno­bilia, rogorc CrdiloeT amerikis erT-erTi umsxvi­le­si samrewve­lo-savaWro centri. albertSi mdebareobs cnobili xelTuq­mneli bunebrivi adgilebi: bufalo, ja­speri da sxva. britanuli kolum­bia kanadis yvelaze uf­ro dasavluri da maRalmTiani provinciaa. iseve ro­gorc kanadis bevri sxva provinciisaTvis, bri­tanuli kolumbiisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia mraval­ferovani lan­dSaftebi. es aris mTebis, tbebis, mra­vali mdi­nareebisa da mwvane mindvrebis qveyana.

provinciis mTavar qalaqs warmoadgens Crdilo­eT amerikis ulama­zesi, msxvili saporto qalaqi _ vankuveri. misi centraluri nawili mdebare­obs di­debuli mTis mwvervalebis ZirSi zRvis yures sana­piro­ze. turis­te­bisaTvis popularulia 400 heqtar­ze gaSene­buli stenlis parki, romelic gaSenebu­lia fiWvis tyee­biT. iukoni_XX saukunis dasawyisi­dan iTvleba legen­daruli `oqros labirinTebis” raionad. iukonis miwebi, xeluxle­beli veluri bu­nebiT, gadaWimulia 500 aTasi km2-is farTobze. bri­taneTis kolumbiis CrdiloeTiT, aliaskasa da ka­nadis Crdilo-dasavleTiT mdeba­re teri­toriebs Soris. iukonis teritoriis udides nawils iWers kor­dilera, xolo CrdiloeTiT, arqtikis sanapiroze ki gadaWimulia tundra.

kanadis qveynis teritoriebis mniSvnelovani na­wili perspeqtiulia sarkinigzo turizmis ganviTa­rebis Tval­sazrisiT. ukve funqcionirebs mTeli rigi popularuli sarkinigzo marSrutebi. ase or­ganizdeba sarkinigzo tu­rebi skalistis mTebSi. ka­nadaSi mogzauroba velur bu­nebaSi Seadgens Sida turizmis saerTo moculobis daa­xloebiT 1/4 na­wils. bunebaSi mogzaurobis gadasaxade­biT dabegv­ris xarjze am qveynis xelisufleba yovelwliu­rad iRebs daaxloebiT 1,7 mlrd. dolars. es maCve­nebeli 5-jer aWarbebs im saSualebebs (300 mln do­lars), romelic yovelwliurad ixarjeba veluri bune­bis dacvis programebis dasafinanse­blad. amri­gad, eko­turizmi SeiZleba gadaiqces seriozuli finansuri mxa­r­daWeris meqanizmad bunebisdacviT RonisZiebaTa ganxo­rcielebisaTvis.

                                           

meqsikis turistuli potencialis amoqmedebis gzebi

 

meqsika dedaqalaqia mexiko. turizmi sul ufro mniSvnelovan rols asru­lebs meqsikis ekonomikaSi. igi aRiarebulia erT-erT Ziri­Tad prio­ritetul dargad qveynis ganviTa­rebisaTvis. me­qsikaSi turistebi Camodin ZiriTadad kanadidan da ev­ropuli qveynebidan. meqsika erT-er­Ti im saxe­lmwifoTa­gania, sadac odiTganve arsebo­bda amerikis, maiasa da actekis xalxTa uZvelesi civilizacia. qveyanaSi jer kidev SemorCenilia Zve­li qalaqebis maiasa da actekis (Ci-Cen-icas, palen­kesa da sxvaTa) nang­reve­bi.maT Soris gamoyofen actekis pirami­debs, maioris Zeglsa da qvis wris saxiT gamoxatuli mzis kalendaris cnobil qvas. mexi­ko turistebisa­Tvis sainteresoa qalaqis Zveli centriT, Sua sau­kunovani Senobis_bazilika-gvadalupes nangreve­biT da moneturi sasaxli­T. mexikos istoriuli centri CarTulia msoflio memkvidreobis nusxaSi. wynari okea­nis sanapiroze mdebare akapulkos SesaniSnavi kurorti gamo­irCeva lamazi plaJebiT, maRali sas­tumroe­biTa da kazinoebiT. meqsikis srutis sanapi­ros cnobil kurorts warmoadgens kankunic, rome­lic mdebareobs iukatanis naxevarkunZulze. es sa­kurorto adgili cno­bilia sufTa zRviT, arqeo­logiur zonebTan siaxloviT, bunebrivi ZeglebiTa da ra Tqma unda TeTri qviSisgan Seqmnili plaJiT.

iukatanis naxevarkunZuli _ maias civilizaciis akva­ni warmoadgens arqeologiuri Zeglebis udide­si raode­nobis mqone raions. imavdroulad aq vita­rdeba turiz­mis Tanamedrove saxeobebic. naxevarku­nZulis mniSvne­lo­vani nawili daqselilia karstu­li warmonaqmnebiT, miwi­sqveSa wyle­biT, romelTa­gan bevrs gasasvleli aqvs zRvaze. es raioni popu­larulia sportis aqtiuri saxee­bis, kerZod: daivi­ngis moyvarulTaTvis. qveyanaSi bevri erovnuli pa­rki da nakrZalia. maT Soris yvelaze ufro cnobi­lia bosenCevisa da kumbres-de-orisabas (tyiT da­faruli mTebiT), la-moli­nCesa da piko-deorisabas (cno­bili vulkanebiT) parkebi, iSviaTi jiSis frin­velis _ selestumis nakrZali da sxvebi. mexikoSi viTardeba sar­kin­igzo turizmi. amgvarad, saeqskur­sio sarkinigzo ma­rSrutebis organizeba xdeba se­ra-madres mTebSi. es tu­ri cnobilia, rogorc `meq­sikuri cis qveS turi”. sera-madres mTebi sTava­zobs farTo SesaZleblobebs samTo da saseirno turizmis ganviTarebisaTvis.

grenlandia yvelaze didi kun­Zulia msoflio­Si. cnobi­lia, ro­gorc zRvis kruizebis ad­gili. aq turiste­bs sTavazo­ben Tevzaobas, nadi­robas, cxene­biTa da ZaRlebiT gaseirne­bas, motoTxila­murebiT da bunebrivad ganviTarebul sa­Txilamuro sports.

Tema 8.

 


aRmosavleT evropis turistuli potenciali

aRmosavleT evropis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis ru­seTi belorusia, ukraina, moldova, yazaxeTi (nawi­lob­riv). amave regionSi Sedis aseve samx­reT ka­vka­siis qveynebic: saqarTvelo, somxeTi da azer­bai­ja­ni, Tumca isini geografiulad mdebareo­ben aziaSi.

nawili I.

ruseTis turistul-rekreaciuli resursebi da bunebriv-klimaturi pirobebi

ruseTi flobs udides SesaZleblobebs turis­tebis mozidvisaTvis. amas xels uwyobs mravalfe­rovani buneb­rivi pirobebisa da resursebis arse­boba, ruseTis mdidari kul­turul-istoriuli war­suli, didi da naklebaddasaxle­buli teritoriebi, sadac Semonaxulia veluri buneba. mTeli rigi mi­zezebis gamo, ruseTi jer kidev ver axer­xebs Tavi­si rekreaciuli potencialis srul realize­bas da igi sakmaod erTferovnad iyenebs am sferoSi arse­bul resursebs. ruseTis ZiriTadi turistu­li da sakurorto zonebis CamonaTvali SeiZleba warmod­genili iqnes v. g. guliaevas mier mocemuli klasi­fika­ciiT. mas safuZvlad udevs fizikur-geografi­uli niSne­bi (adgilis reliefuri klimatis Tavise­burebani, flora, fauna, geoTermuli resursebis arseboba da a. S.), agre­Tve kulturulistoriuli potencialis arseboba da turistuli infrastruq­turis ganviTarebis done.

Sedegad gamoyofili iqna oTxi msxvili turis­tuli regioni: ruseTis centri, ruseTis Crdiloe­Ti, ruseTis samxreTi, cimbiri da Soreuli aRmo­savleTi. ruseTis centrs ganekuTvneba central­u­ri, dasavleTis, Crdilo-dasavleTis mxareebi, zeda povolJe, Sua da samxreT urali. regioni xasiaTde­ba mdidari rekreaciuli poten­cialiT, politiku­ri viTarebis stabilurobiT, kultu­ruli memkvid­reobis mravalferovnebiT, rac xels uw­yobs turi­zmis ganviTarebas. ruseTis CrdiloeTiT tu­rizmis ganviTarebis mixedviT, SeiZleba perspeqtiu­l­ad Ca­iTvalos mxolod evropuli nawilis raionebi: ka­relo-kolisa da ruseTis CrdiloeTi. aq arsebobs bunebriv-re­kreaciuli resurse­bis da sxva saxis is­toriul-kulturu­li RirsSesaniSnaobani.

ruseTis samxreTs ganekuTvneba politikurad stabi­luri, magram rekre­aciuli TvalsazrisiT su­stad ganvi­Tarebuli central­ri_Savmiwiani mxa­re, da agreTve kav­kasia, romelsac feTqebadsaSiSi po­litikuri viTareba da imavdroulad kargad ganvi­Tarebuli turistuli in­frastruqtura aqvs. poli­tikuri stabilurobis miuxeda­vad, cimbiri da So­reuli aRmo­sa­vleTi xasiaTdeba mTe­li rigi uaryo­fiTi faqto­rebiT, rac negatiurad aisaxeba am re­gionis turi­z­mis ganviTarebaze. kerZod, esenia cen­traluri da­saxle­bidan mniSvnelovani daSoreba, mkacri klimaturi piro­b­ebi, susti dasaxleba, inf­rastruqturis ganuviTareb­lo­ba. moskovSi Catare­bulma tu­ristulma gamofenebma aC­ve­na, rom turiz­mis ganviTarebisadmi interess sul ufro iCenen regionebi. axalaSenebulma regionebma dai­wyo Ta­vianT turistul RirsSesaniSnaobaTa reklamireba.

ruseTi, teritoriis sididis mixedviT (17,1 mln. km2-iT), yvelaze didi saxelmwifoa mTel msoflio­Si. iseTi qveynis tu­ristuli resursebis aTviseba, rogoric ruseTia, SeuZ­lebelia sa­transporto qse­lis ganviTa­rebis gareSe. Tanamedrove etapze tran­sportis yvelaze metad gamoyenebad sa­xeobas war­moadgens rkinigzis transporti. amas­Tan dakavSire­biT, turi­zmis erT-erT perspeqti­ul saxeobad SeiZ­leba gadaiqces sarkinigzo tu­rizmi. turistuli bazris mniSvnelovan segmentad iTvleba, winaswar da­gegmili marSrutebis mixedviT, specia­lizebuli turistul-saeqspedicio mgzavrobis _ mag., marSru­tis _`ruseTis Crdi­l­oeTis” (moskovi-fskovi-novgo­rodi-sankt-peterbur­gis) or­ganizeba. turizmi SeiZ­leba gadaiqces ru­seTis regionuli (ker­Zod, agra­rul, depresiul, axalbeda, sasazRvro-ganapi­ra, pa­tara an saSualo raionebisa da Zveli qalaqebis) ganvi­Tarebis xelSemwyob faqtorad.

murmanskis, mxare turistuli SesaZleblobebis Tva­lsazrisiT, warmodgenilia dasvenebisa da gar­Tobis Se­mdegi saxeebiT: turistebs SeuZliaT way­lqveSa naviT gacuron murmanskidan Crdi­loeT po­lusze; sufTa mdinareSi daiWi­ron yvelaze didi Tevzebi; isrialon Txi­lamurebiT hibinis daTov­lil mTeb­ze; datkben Te­Tri da barnecovis zRvis wyalqveSa samya­ros si­lamaziT; aqtiuri monawileo­ba mii­Ron aprilis TveSi Txilamure­biT maraTonSi.

mlocvelebisaTvis, SemecnebiTi da agreTve eko­logi­uri turizmis warmomadgenlebisaTvis did in­teress Sei­Zleba iwvevdes solovecis kunZuli, ro­melic mdebare­obs TeTri zRvis CrdiloeT nawil­Si. aq mdebareobs XV saukuneSi agebuli, solove­cis cnobili monasteri, Tavisi kre­mli­Ta da isto­riuli ZeglebiT. monasteri odiTganve asrulebda udides rols ruseTis CrdiloeT na­wilis dacvaSi. igi gamodioda sulieri da sameurneo saqmianobis organizatorisa da xelovnebis Sedevrebis Semgro­veblis rolSi. 1920 wels am kunZulebze ganala­ges SromiTi-gamosasworebeli banaki, sadac sasjels axdevinebdnen politikur msjavrdebulebs _ filo­sofosebs, maTematikosebs, qimikosebs, wminda p. a. florens da sxva sulier aRmsareblebs.

samxreT urali didi xnis ganmavlobaSi `TeTr laqad” iyo datanili turistul rukaze. es dakav­Sirebulia mTel rig `daxuruli qalaqebis” arse­bobasTan, romelic mde­bareobs Celiabinskis mxaris teritoriaze, magram dRei­saTvis suraTi Seicvala. aq arsebobs mTeli rigi turis­tuli RirsSesaniS­naobani. mag., aseTebia: ilmenis saxelmwifo minera­luri nakrZali, romelic daarsda 1920 wels qalaq miasis raionSi. aq mdebareobs mineralebi. mxaris maRalmTiani mwvervalebidan saTaves iRebs mravali mdinare, romelic Caedineba kamis, tabalasa da ur­alis auzSi. Celiabinis mxareSi 3 aTasze meti tbaa. xelsayreli klimati, umaRlesi xarisxis samkurna­lo wylebi da talaxebi farTod gamoiyeneba gama­ja­nsaRebeli daniSnulebiT am sakurorto qselSi.

ruseTis centrSi turistebisaTvis mimzidvelia or­lovis mxareSi mdebare kurorti _ spas-lutovi­novi, sa­dac gaatara Tavisi bavSvoba i. s. turgenev­ma. s. ese­ninis samSobloa riazanis mxareSi mdeba­re konstantino­vis sofeli, tulis mxareSi mdebare muzeumi _iasnaia paliana, sadac cxovrobda cno­bi­li rusi mwerali l. tolstoi da sxva adgilebi.

zRvispira mxareSi bolo dros ganviTareba dai­wyo ekologiurma turizmma. tardeba kruizebi mdi­nare amur­ze, agreTve laSqroba unikaluri flora­sa da faunas mqone ekologiur tropikul zonebSi. tradiciulad tu­ristebs Soris popularuli rCeba baikalis tbis raio­ni, romelsac turistuli Tva­lsazrisiT, xSirad uwode­ben `baikalur-monRolur azias”. turistebs saSuale­ba eZlevaT moxvdnen ve­lur bunebaSi, gaecnon budistur monastrebSi moR­vawe sasuliero pirTa yofa-cxovrebas, daisvenon baikalispira erovnul parkebSi, daaTvalie­ron ku­nZuli, monRoleTis Zveli dedaqalaqi yarayarumi.

sankt-peterburgis turistuli RirsSesaniSnao­bani. ruseTis msxvil qalaqebs Soris turistebi yvelaze ufro eZalebian sankt-peterburgs. Tavad qalaqi da misi gareubnebi sakmaod didi istori­ul-kulturuli Rirs­SesaniSnaobaa. igi aRiarebu­li gaxda Tavisi gmiruli TavdacviT meore msof­lio omis dros, roca igi 900 dRis ganmavlobaSi iyo blokadaSi da mainc gauZlo, ar danebda. 2003 wels qalaqSi izeimes daarsebidan 300 wlisTavi. pe­terburgs xSirad uwodeben `CrdiloeT venecias”. is da­arsda 1703 wels petre I-is surviliT, raTa aq aeSenebi­naT porti, cixe-simagre da imperiis deda­qalaqi. mSeneb­lobis ganxorcie­lebisTvis dasav­leT evropidan mo­wveuli iqna saukeTeso arqiteqtorebi.

aq turistebis yuradRebas, upirveles yovlisa, ipy­robs zamTris sasaxle, romelic aago arqiteq­torma b. rastrelma. aRniSnul SenobaSi mdebare­obs saxelmwifo muzeumi, romelic cnobilia mTel msoflioSi. muzeum­Si gamofenilia daaxloebiT 2,7 mln suraTi, skulptu­ra, naxati, xelovnebis Sedev­rebi, aveji, tradiciuli pijakebi, monetebi, medle­bi, iaraRi da civilizaciis yve­la epoqis sxva sag­nebi. aqvea peterburgis moednebis ko­mpleqsi, sasax­lis moedani, `dekabristebis” moedani, xe­lovnebis moedani, marsis veli da a. S.

sankt-peterbur­gis mTavari moedania sasaxlis moeda­ni, romlis for­mirebasac safuZveli Cauyara zamTris sasaxlis mSeneblobam. sasaxlis moednis centrSi aRma­rTulia aleqsandrias koSki, romlis simaRlec aRwevs 47,5 metrs. igi aris 1812 wlis om­Si rusi xalxis gamar­jvebis simbolo. koSkis siax­loves mdebareobs isaakie­vis taZari. es aris msof­lioSi yvelaze didi marTlma­di­debluri taZari, romlis simaRlec aRwevs 102 metrs, xolo igi te­ritoriulad ganlagebulia 1 heqtari miwis farTo­bze. peterburgis simbolo aris cxenze amxedre­bu­li petre I-is Zegli, romelic aago skulptorma _ fa­l­konem. Zegli mdebareobs `de­kabristebis” (yofi­li se­natis) moedanze. qalaqis sxva RirsSesaniSna­obebs war­m­oadgens admiralis_petropavlovis ek­lesia, ruseTis sa­xelmwifo muzeumi, sadac Tavmoy­rilia rusi mxatvre­bisa da skulptorebis naxatebi da skulpturebi, vasili­evis kunZulis SenobaTa kompleqsi da sazafxulo baRi. di­debulia agreTve qalaqis mTavari quCa _ nevis prospeqti.

aq turistebs izidavs sankt-peterburgis gare ubne­bic, SesaniSnavi qalaqgare sasaxleebi da par­kebi _ mTel msoflioSi cnobili sasaxle-parkebis kompleqsi _ same­fo ojaxis sazafxulo reziden­cia. II msoflio omis dros maTi umravlesoba gai­Zarcva, ma­gram omis Semdeg isini kvlav aRsdga. Se­degad sankt-peterburgis qalaqgare sasaxleebi da par­kebi gamoirCevian TavianTi brwyinvalebiT. ese­nia: imperatoris rezidencia, samefo so­feli, pav­lovis, petergofis da oranienbaumis parkebi.

kronStadtis cixe-simagris mopirdapire mxares, fine­Tis kunZulis samxreT sanapiroze mdebare sa­saxle-par­kis kompleqsi gadaiqca imperator petre III-is sazafxu­lo rezidenciad, romlisTvisac age­buli iqna peterSta­dtis cixe-simagreTa kompleqsi, arqiteqtoris_a. rina­ldis minia­turuli ezoTi. mo­gvianebiT dedofal _ eka­terine II-isaTvis man aago Cinuri sasaxle. yvela es is­toriuli Zegli klasi­cizmis gamoxatulebaa. muzeumis darbazebSi warmo­dgenilia XVIII saukunis Sedevrebi: grafikebi, sku­lpturebi, naxatebi, suraTebi da a. S.

samefo sofeli Seiqmna XVIII saukunis Sua xane­bSi. ekaterininis sasaxle aSenda petre I-is meuR­lis, momava­li dedoflis ekaterine I-is (b. rastre­lis proeqtis av­toris) dasvenebisaTvis. igi dgas, Sua saukuneebis par­kTa Soris, sxva sasaxleTa ga­remocvaSi. igi gamoirCeva plastikuri dekoratis saocari mravalferovnebiT. cisfer fasadze SeRe­bili TeTri Senobebi moCuqurTme­bulia mooqrovi­li figurebiT. sasaxlis Zvirfaseu­loba gaZarcvu­li iqna II msoflio omis dros germaneli dampyro­blebis mier. misi Zieba mimdinareobs dResac. Tana­medrove etapze igi aRdgenil iqna restavratorTa Zalis­xmeviT. sasaxle garSemortymulia XVII sauku­nis bolosa da XVIII saukunis dasawyisSi moRvawe italiel xelovan­Ta mier Seqmnili skulpturebiT.

sasaxlis fasadis perpendikularulad hkidia ka­me­r­onis galerea (ar­qiteqtori C.kameroni, 1787 w.). gale­reas meore sarTulze warmodgenilia vercx­lisferi skulpturebis koleqcia, romelic Sesru­lebulia peter­burgis moxeleebis mier 1780-90 wle­bSi. parkSi agebu­lia didi da lamazi Senobebi. eka­terininis sasax­lis gverdiT mdebareobs samefo-sa­soflo liceumis Se­no­ba, sadac swavlobda a. s. pu­Skini. liceumis baRSi aR­ma­rTulia poetis Zegli. samefo soflidan 2 km-is daSo­rebiT mdebareobs pa­vlovis parki, romelic gadaWimulia slaviankis lamazi mdinaris sanapiroze. es miwa ekate­rine II-m aCuqa Tavis memkvidres, momaval imperators pav­le I-s. arqiteqtorma C. kameronma aago didi sasaxle. pa­vlovis parki_erT-erTi ulamazesi da umsxvilesi pei­zaJuri parkia mTel evropaSi. igi ganlagebulia 600 heq­tari miwis farTobze. muzeumSi warmodgeni­lia rusuli portretebis brwyinvale koleqcia.

petergofi _ rusuli xelovnebis erT-erTi, yve­laze cnobili Zeglia. mas uwodeben `xelovnebis margalits”, radganac igi moicavs zRapruli sila­mazis mqone ba­Rebs, parkebs, ezoebsa da Sadrevnebs. 2005 wlis seqtem­berSi petergofma aRniSna Tavisi daarsebis 300 wlisTa­vi. mis kompleqsSi Sedis 7 pa­rki, 20-ze meti sasaxle da agreTve 140 Sadrevani. Sadrevnebis sistema maragdeba 22 km-is distanciis mqone CanCqeris TviTdinebadi wyliT. sistemaSi ar arsebobs dguSebi da maRali wnevis mqone wylis Wavlis uzrunvelmyofi danadgarebi. am sistemaSi Semaval Sadrevnebs Soris yvelaze maRali Sadre­vani aRwevs 22 metris simaRles. Sadrevnebis didi kaskadi esxmeba 225 mooqrovil skulpturas. orani­enbaumi mdeba­reobs peterburgisagan 40 km-is daSo­rebiT. petergofis siaxloves. misi sasaxle-parkis kompleqsi ar da­zaralebula II msoflio omis dros, radganac qalaqi ar yofila okupirebuli.[1]

moskovis turistuli RirsSesaniSnaobani.

moskovi_ruseTis dedaqalaqi Zalian perspeqtiu­lia turizmis ganviTa­rebis TvalsazrisiT, magram mis aRmav­lobas aferxebs am qalaqis tu­ristuli infrastruqtu­ris ganuviTarebloba. turistebisaT­vis erT-erT yvela­ze ufro mimzidvel obieqts war­moadgens kremli,

kremlSi yvelaze didi mSenebloba daiwyo ivan III-is (1462-1505 ww) moRvaweobis dros. moskovi gax­da ruseTis centralizebuli saxelmwifos dedaqa­laqi. XV saukunis dasasruls mopirkeTebuli iqna kremlis kedlebi agure­biT da aSenda 18 koSki. ma­Ti sigrZe Seadgens 2235 metrs, simaRle_5-dan 19 m-s. xolo sigane ki _ 3,5-dan 6,5 metrs. 1937 wels oqtomris revoluciis 20 wlisTavTan dakavSire­biT, xuT koSkze aRmarTes mnaTobi vasrkvlavebi. yoveli varskvlavi iwonis 1 tonas, xolo wriuli diametriT isini Seadgenen 3,75 metrs.

ukrainis turistuli resursebi

ukraina, teritoriuli farTobis mixedviT, aris erT-erTi umsxvilesi qveyana damoukidebel saxelm­wifoTa Tanamegobrobis qveynebs Soris. uk­rainaSi saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTareba dakavSirebu­lia ZiriTadad qvey­nis dedaqalaqis _ kievis, yi­rimis naxevarkunZulis saku­rorto rai­o­nisa da ag­reTve karpatebSi (truskavecis, morSinas, svaliava­sviasa da xme­lnikis) klimaturi ku­ror­tebis daTva­lierebasTan. kievi iTvleba `rusu­li qala­qebis de­dad”. kievis yvelaze cnobil RirsSesaniS­naobas wa­rmoad­gens oqros karibWe da wminda sofias taZari, kievis is­toriul-arqi­teqturul ZeglTa komple­qsi, meidanis (damou­kideblobis) cen­traluri moedani, wminda andria pirve­lwodebulis eklesia da a. S.

yirimis karibWe aris qalaqi _simferopoli. aqe­dan turistebi miemgza­v­rebian naxevarkunZulis ax­lomdebare iseT kurortebze, rogoricaa: ial­ta, alupka, aluSta, ev­patoria da a. S. yirimis sanapi­roze mdebareobs qa­laqi sevastopoli, romelic XIX da XX saukuneebSi iyo sa­s­tiki samxe­d­ro dar­tymis centri. amitom sevasto­polSi bevri istoriu­li Zeglia, ro­melic dakavSirebu­lia saz­Rvao da saxmeleTo brZolebTan. turistebisa da qala­qis stumrebis interesis sferos warmoadgens `1854_1855 wlebis sevastopolis Tavdacvisa” da `sapunis mTis Sturmis” panorama.

yirimi far­Tod aris cnobili Zveli berZnuli qalaqis_ her­sone­sis is­toriuli ZeglebiT, agreTve qalaqiT _ baxCisarai­aTi, sadac mdebareobs xanis sasaxle (am­Jamad, igi aris is­toriul-arqiteqturu­li muzeumi). yi­rimSi cxovro­bdnen yofili samefo ojaxebi_ livadiis, muskatis, iusufo­vis da sxvaTa sasaxlee­bi. livadiis sasaxle cnobilia, rogorc qveynis antihitleruli koaliciis: stalinis, ruzveltisa da CerCilis meTau­ro­biT 1945 wlis is­toriuli ialtis konferenciis Cata­rebis adgi­li. yiri­mis (kara-dagisa da daTvis) mTebSi moqme­debs turistuli bazis qseli. yirimi cnobilia meRvine­obiT. gansakuTrebiT fasdeba massandris Rvino.

moldaveTis turistuli potenciali

moldaveTi mdebareobs aRmosavleT evropaSi, mdinareebis prutisa da dnestrs Soris. es aris ag­rosa­mrewvelo qveyana, romlis ekonomikac efuZneba sxvada­sxva saxis sasoflo-sameurneo produqciis gadamuSavebas. moldaveTis dedaqalaqia kiSiniovi, romelsac uwodeben `zRva­Si mocurave TeTri qvi­sagan agebul qa­laqs”. igi mdebareobs mdinare bi­kis lamaz fer­dobze. yurZnis moyvana da Rvinis dawurva _ Zveli moldavu­ri tradiciaa. krikovSi mdebareobs adgilobrivi Rvinis sar­dafebi, sadac turistebs SeuZliaT iaron meRvine­o­bis miwisqveSa `qalaqis quCebSi”. amitom `Rvinis turebi” warmoadgens turizmis gan­viTarebis perspeqtiul mimarTulebas.

nawili II.

kavkasiis turistuli potenciali da misi amoqmedebis gzebi

 

kavkasia (`mijaWvuli promeTe”) vrceli buneb­rivi regionia Sav, kas­pi­isa da azovis zRvebs So­ris. igi CrdiloeTiT SemosazRvrulia kuma-mani­Cis RrmuliT, samxreTiT _ iraniTa da TurqeTiT, da­savleTiT _ yubanis SesarTaviT, xolo aRmosavle­TiT ki _ afSeronis naxevarkunZuliT. kav­kasiis fa­rTobi 440 aTasi kv. km-ia. sadac cxovrobs 30 mln kaci. kavkasiis mTavari wyalgamyofi qedi kavkasi­ons yofs CrdiloeT (imier) da samxreT (amier) kav­kasiad. CrdiloeT kavkasiis farTobia 250 aTasi kv. km., xolo amierkavkasiisa ki _ 190 aTasi kv. km. bu­nebrivi pirobebis mixedviT, gana­sx­vaveben ag­reTve dasavleT da aRmosavleT kavkasions, romel­Tagan pirveli moicavs azovis da Savi zRvis auzs, xo­lo meore ki _ kaspiis zRvis auzs. qedi agreTve wa­-rmoadgens zomieri da subt­ropikuli zonebis bune­briv sazRvars. kavkasias ekuTv­nis agreTve TurqeTis Crdilo-aRmosavleTi.

ros­tovis olqisa da yalmuxeTis respublikis terito­riebis nawili. kavkasiis regionis buneba mravalfe­rovania. aq originalurad aris Sexamebu­li mSrali peizaJe­bi nestian subtropikebTan. Tbi­li zRvebisa da yi­nulovani mTebis aseT siaxloves sxvagan iSvi­aTad naxavs turisti. amJamad kavkasiis teritoria 4 su­verenul saxelmwifos moicavs. ker­Zod, esenia: saqa­rTvelo (69,7 kv. km.), somxeTi (29,8 kv. km.), azer­bai­jani (86,6 kv. km.) da ruseTi (254,3 kv. km.). TviT ru­seTis federacia kavkasiaSi warmodge­nilia Sem­degi administraciuli erTeulebiT: kras­nodaris mxare (76 kv. km.), stavropolis mxare (66,5 kv. km.), respub­likebi _ adile (7,6 kv. km.), yaraCai-CerqezeTi (14,1 kv. km.), yabardo-balyareTi (12,5 kv. km.), Crdi­loeT oseTi (8,0 kv. km.), inguSeTi (4,6 kv. km.), CeC­neTi da daRestani (50,3 kv. km.).

 

saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi amierkavkasiis qveynebSi

 

amierkavkasiis qveynebSi_saqarTveloSi, azerbai­jan­sa da somxeTSi arsebobs saerTaSoriso turiz­mis ganvi­Tarebis udidesi potenciali, rac multip­likaciuri ef­eqtiT, xels Seuwyobs am qveynebis ek­onomikur zrdas, gamokvlevebis Tanaxmad, kavkasia­Si turizmisagan miRebu­li efeqtis asamaRleblad saWiroa transportisa da sa­stumroTa qselis gan­viTareba. sar­kinigzo turizmi aq­tiurad viTardeba kavkasiaSic, sadac organizdeba erT­dRiani turis­tuli mgzavroba: `janmrTe­lobis matare­beli”, `To­vlis fifqi”, `Txilamu­ri” da sxva. am Tvalsazri­siT, mizanSewonilad migvaC­nia, warsu­lis wlebis gamocdilebis gaziareba. kavkasiaSi agreTve mniSv­nelo­vania saerTaSoriso TvalsazrisiT perspeqti­u­li, eko­logiu­ri turizmis ganviTareba, romelic dakavSirebu­lia daculi teritoriebis ganviTare­basa da ekologi­uri problemebis gadaWrasTan. bev­ri rekreaciuli obieqti mdebareobs ami­erkavka­siis qveynebSi: saqarT­velo­Si, azerbaijansa da somxeT­Si, romelic imsaxurebs yuradRebis gamaxvilebas.

saqarTvelos teritoria mdidaria mineraluri wylis resursebiT. qveyanaSi aRricxulia 100-ze me­ti klimatu­ri da barneologiuri kurorti. yvela­ze cnobil ku­rorts warmoadgens qalaqi borjomi, romelic mdebare­obs mdinare mtkvaris ulamazes mdeloze. mineraluri wylebis garda, qalaqis gar­Semo arsebobs ekologiuri turizmis ganviTarebi­saTvis xelsayreli nakrZalebi.

Tbilisi aris saqarTvelos dedaqalaqi. es saxe­lwo­deba warmoSobilia sityva `Tbilisagan”, rad­ganac qala­qis siaxloves aris Tbili samkurnalo, barneologiuri wyaroebi. uZveles (1500 wlis isto­riis mqone) qalaq _ TbilisSi mravali istoriuli Zeglia: lamazi da eniT aRuwereli Tbilisis Zve­li ubnebi. saqarTvelos dedaqalqidan Crdiloe­TiT, 20 km-is daSorebiT, mdebare­obs qveynis uZve­lesi qalaqi (yofili dedaqalaqi) mcxe­Ta. aq turi­stebs SeuZliaT daaTvalieron javis cnobi­li mo­nasteri _ saqarTvelos miwaze qristianobis damk­vidrebis simbolo. Cvens qveyanaSi araCveulebrivi ta­Zre­bi da eklesiebia. ubralo, kuTxovani formis mqone qarTuli eklesiebi organulad aris Serwy­muli garemo landSaftTan. isini mkveTrad gansxva­vdebian kavkasiis arqiteqturisaTvis damaxasiaTebe­li tipiuri agebulebis mqone sxva eklesiebisagan.

azerbaijani, Tanamedrove teritoriiT, mniSvne­lova­n strategiul gan­lagebas flobda aziidan ev­ropis _ e. w. `didi abreSumis gzis” mimar­Tu­lebiT. aRniSnuli qveynis istoriul-kulturuli memkvid­reoba Camoyalib­da sami mezobeli saxelmwifos _ ruseTis, iranisa da TurqeTis zemo­qme­debis qveS. qveynis ZiriTad bunebriv simdidres warmoadgens navTobi. amas emateba samkurnalo navTobi _ nafta­lini, romelic mniSvnelovania qvey­nis kurorte­bi­saTvis. navTobis mopovebam da aseve qimikatebis ga­moyenebam Svriis moyvanis pirobebSi warmoqmna se­riozu­li ekologiuri problema, rac iTvleba ma­sobrivi tu­rizmis ganviTarebis xelSemSlel erT-erT mniSvnelovan winaaRmdegobad. amasTan erTad, azerbaijans gaaCnia yve­la piroba regulirebadi rekreaciis ganviTarebisaTvis. qveynis buneba Zalian mdidaria. aq aRiricxeba flo­ris 4000-mde endemuri saxeoba. magaliTad, mce­nareTa iSvi­aT saxeobas warmoadgens tugais reliq­tikuri tye, rome­lic ar xarobs msoflioSi arsad sxvagan. azerbaijan­Si Seqmnilia yizilagaCis, zaka­talis, girkanis, Sirvani­sa da sxva nakrZalebi.

azerbaijani mdidari istoriuli warsulisa da Zve­li qalaqebis mqone qveyanaa. qveynis dedaqalaqi baqo Ta­namedrove etapzec ki inaxavs Suasaukunovan istoriul Zeglebs: deviCis koSks, mravalricxovan meCeTebsa da mi­nareTebs. qalaqSi aris bevri muzeu­mi. Tanamedrove baqo­sa da axlomdebare qalaqebis namdvil siamayes warmoad­gens baRebi, skverebi da xeivnebi. azerbaijanis erT-erT Zvel qalaqs warmo­adgens lenkarani. igi mdebare­obs kaspiis zRvis sa­napiroze baqodan 300 km-is daSore­biT. klimaturi pirobebis wyalobiT lenkarani aRiare­bulia Tavisi erovnuli parkebiTa da nakrZalebiT. igi cnobilia gamajansaRebeli centrebiTa da unikaluri samedi­cino vanebiT. qalaqi _Semaxi aris meRvineobisa da tyavis warmoebis mniSvnelovani centri. qalaqebi _ gan­ja da Seka cnobilia meCeTebiT da sasaxleebiT.

somxeTi upiratesad mTiani qveyanaa. misi erov­nuli simboloa araratis mTa. somxeTis gerbze ce­ntrSi gamosaxulia araratis mTa da mis wverze noes ki­dobani (bibliuri legendis Tanaxmad, wyal­didobis Sem­deg kidobani SeCerda swored am mTa­ze). araratis mTis imiji gamoxatulia aq warmoebu­li popularuli produq­ciis _ somxuri koniakis etiketzec. somxeTis mTebSi mdebareobs maRalmTia­ni tba _sevani, romelic mdebareobs zRvis donidan 2000 metris simaRleze. tbis auzi gamocxadebulia sevanis erovnul parkad. am tbisaTvis wylis misa­wodeblad qanebSi wyali gadis mraval­kilometrian gvirabebs. tba warmoadgens dasvenebis popularul adgils. aq bevria samkurnalo-mineraluri wya­ro, romlis safuZve­lzec funqcioni­rebs jermukis, ar­znisa da dilijanis sa­mkurnalo kurortebi.

somxeTi uZvelesi qveyanaa, romelmac erT-erTma pir­velma miiRo qristianuli rwmena. aq religiuri kultis bevri Zeglia _ taZrebi, monastrebi da ek­lesiebi. bevri maTgani mdebareobs qveynis dedaqa­laq _ erevanSi. somxe­Ti mTel msoflios axsovs 1915 wlis somxuri mosaxle­obis saSineli genoci­diT. maT sapativcemulod erevanSi daidga memoria­li, romlis mosanaxuleblad qveyanaSi Camodis mravali turisti da stumari.

 

CrdiloeT kavkasiis turistul-rekreaciuli potenciali

 

Tanamedrove CrdiloeT kavkasiis regi­onSi Se­dis ruseTis samxreTuli regionebi _ vladivasto­ki, soCa da daRestnis respublika.

vladivastoki aris zRvispira savaWro porti. turiz­misaTvis perspeq­tiulad iTvleba kamCatkis naxevarkunZu­li. mas axasiaTebs sxvadasxva­gva­ri, un­ikaluri bunebri­vi kompleqsi: SesaniSnavi geizere­bi da sxva. turi­s­tu­li TvalsazrisiT, aq SeiZleba calke gamoyofili iqnes Semdegi turi­stuli resu­rsebi: azovisa da Savi zRvis sanapiroebi, kavkasiis minera­luri wylebis raioni. Tama­ni, eiski, primor-axtani _ yvelaze axalgazrda da dina­miurad ganvi­Tarebadi kurortebi. Savi zRvis sanapiroze mdeba­re­obs cnobili kurorti anapa, gelenjiki, tuapse, soCa da sxvebi. 2002 wels gelenjiks mieniWa damou­kide­bel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobis farg­le­bSi yvelaze keTilmowyobili kurortis statusi. aq aSenda im droi­saT­vis Savi zRvispireTis fargleb­Si pirveli xuTvarsk­vlaviani sastumro.

kavkasiis mineraluri wylebis raioni ikavebs stav­ropolis mxaris samxreT nawils. igi mdebare­obs mTava­ri kavkasiuri qedis CrdiloeT ferdobze. kavkasiis mine­raluri wylebis raioni Zalze gavr­cobilia, magram mas­Si Semavali kislovodis, esen­tukisa da rkinis wylis ku­rortebi mdebareobs sa­kmaod kompaqturad. mineraluri wylebis rkinigzis sadguri sul raRac 60 km-iT aris daSorebuli ki­slovodis yvelaze samxreTuli kurortidan. sxva­Ta Soris sakurorto qalaqi dakavSirebu­lia eleq­trofi­cirebul rkinigzasa da avtosadgurTan. pia­tigorski aris balneologiuri da talaxiT samku­rnalo kurorti. aq moipoveba 40-ze meti mineral­uri wyaro da agreTve tambukanis tbis samkurnalo talaxi. esentuki warmoad­gens kavkasiis umsxviles da yvelaze popularul balne­ologiur kurorts. es kurorti federaluri daniSnu­lebisaa. kuror­tis farglebSi mdebareobs 20-ze meti mi­neraluri wyaro. kislovodi aris kavkasiis mineraluri wyle­bis raionis qalaq-kurortTa jgufSi Semavali yve­laze samxreTuli balneologiuri da klimaturi kuro­rti. igi, kavkasiis mineraluri wylebis raion­Si Semaval kurortebs Soris, yve­laze keTilmow­yobili kurortia. rkiniswylis kurorti yvelaze lamazia kavkasiis mineraluri wylebis raionSi Se­maval oTx ku­rorts Soris. kurorts sam­kurnalo funqcias aniWebs ocze meti mineraluri wyaro.

soCa mdebareobs krasno­daris mxare­Si. igi ga­daWimulia 150 km-ze Savi zRvis sa­napiromde. soCa amJRavnebs mniSvnelovan samkurnalo Tvise­bas. qa­laqi warmoadgens umsx­viles barneo­logi­ur-klima­tur kurorts. aq mdeba­reobs sanatori­umebi, kurortologiis da fizioTe­rapiis instituti.

daRestanis respublika aris CrdiloeT kavkasi­is iseTi adgili, sadac xelsayrelia ara­marto ga­sarTobi da samkurnalo-gamajansaRebeli turi­zmis ganviTareba, aramed kulturul-istoriul RonisZi­ebaTa Catarebac. aq mdebareobs qala­qi _ derbenti, romelsac gaaCnia Tavisi arsebobis damadasturebe­li 5000 wliani istoria. Tavad saxelwodeba der­benti (dar-band) qarTulad niSnavs `karibWes”. der­benti aramarto Tavisi istoriuli warsuliT aris cno­bili, aramed igi aris samxreT daRestanis eko­nomikuri da kulturuli centric. aq Semonaxuli da ganviTarebu­lia uZvelesi warmoeba: tyavis, Rvi­nisa da koniakis war­moeba. qalaqis siZvele da uni­ka­luri bunebrivi pirobebi derbents xdis turis­tebisaTvis mimzidvel adgilad. qalaqis erT-erT RirsSesaniSnaobas warmoadgens ka­lakoreiSis uni­kaluri cixe-simagre, romelic mdeba­reobs maRalm­Tian adgilebSi. gare samyarosagan cixe-si­magres aSorebs mxolod 40 metris sigrZisa da 5 metris siganis patara gasasvleli. swored amitom ci­xe-si­magre auRebeli iyo im droisaTvis gareSe mtrebi­saTvis. daRestnis sofel _ kubaCis ostatebis mier damzadebuli mxatvru­li vercxlis nakeTobani aRi­arebulia mTel msoflioSi. samwuxarod, Tanamedrove etapze kavkasiis rekr­eaciu­li potenciali arasrulad aris aTvisebuli. Sida turizmis sustad ganviTarebis ZiriTad mize­zebs warmoadgens Semdegi faqtorebi: 1. kerZo saku­Trebis dacvis myari garantiebis ararseboba; 2. re­gionis ekonomi­kuri arastabiluroba; 3.servisis da saqmiani kulturis dabali done; 4. kavkasiis Crdi­loeT nawilSi telekomuni­kaciis ganviTarebis dabali done; 5. ekologiuri prob­lemebi.

Tema 7.


CrdiloeT evropis turistuli potenciali

nawili I.

rogorc avRniSneT, CrdiloeT evropaSi tradi­ciulad Sedis skan­di­na­viis qveynebi: norvegia, Sve­cia, fi­ne­Ti, dania, islandia; agreTve baltii­spire­Tis qve­y­nebi _ litva, latvia da estoneTi.

 

fineTis turistuli potenciali da misi gamoyeneba

 

fineTi es aris `qveyana aTasi kunZuliT”, rome­lsac ar gaaCnia mdidari bunebrivi resursebi, tyi­sa da wylis resursebis gamoklebiT. qveynis mniSv­nelovani nawili_ laplandia ganlagebulia pola­rul naxevarsferoSi. fineTis sanapiroebi zamTro­biT gayinulia, romelic mo­fenilia kunZulebiT. Crdi­loeTiT ganlagebis miuxeda­vad, Tbili Sida wylebis Camonadenebis wyalobiT klimati aq mkacri kontinentaluria. fineTSi cxovrobs 5 mln kaci, ZiriTadad finelebi da Svedebi. qvey­nis bu­ne­briv Taviseburebas warmoadgens polaruli Rame.

SvedeTis saxelmwifos funqcionirebis period­Si (ro­melSic adre Sedio­da fineTic) finelebs ga­nixilavd­nen `zedmeti xorcis:” saxiT. XIX saukune­Si fineTi gamo­vida ruseTis imperiis Semadgenlo­bidan, ramac ganapi­roba finuri erovnuli kultu­ris ayvaveba da dedaqala­qis gadatana dasavle­T­is qalaq_Turku-dan qveynis aR­mosavleTiT qalaq _ he­lsink­Si. helsinki daarsda SvedeTis mier fineTze mpyrobelobisas im droisaTvis mzardi qalaqis_ta­linis zedmeti gavlenis dabalansebis mizniT. 1550 wels SvedeTis mefem gustav vazam gadawyvita ta­linis Zlevamosilebis Sesusteba da mis wiaaRmdeg daaar­sa porti. ase warmoiSva helsinki.[1]

fineTi damoukidebel saxelmwifod Camoyalib­da ru­seTSi 1917 wlis didi oqtombris socialis­turi revo­luciis Semdeg. v. i. leninTan miRwe­uli SeTanxmebis Ta­naxmad, fineTs ufleba mieca Seenar­Cunebina er­ovnuli suvereniteti. administraciuli TvalsazrisiT, qveyana dayo­filia 11 guberniad da erT avtonomiad_olandis kun­Zulad. fineTi ekono­mikurad maRalgan­viTarebuli qveya­naa. fineTis mre­wvelobis `savizito baraTi” aris maRa­lxarisxiani qaRaldis, firma `nokias” qselu­ri tele­fonebis, dizelis Zravebis, lif­tebis mowyobilobis, zRvis lainerisa da sportuli inventaris warmoeba.

fineTis ekonomikisaTvis aranakleb mniSvnelo­vania bunebrivi resur­sebis flobac. es ar aris ma­rto tye, rome­lic faravs fineTis teri­to­ri­is mni­Svnelovan nawils. ЮНЕСКО–s monacemebis mixed­viT, fineTi ikavebs pirvel adgils mTel msofli­oSi gruntis wylebis xarisxis mi­xedviT. bu­nebrivi wyaroebi aq imdenad sufTaa, rom gam­dinare wyali adamianma Sei­Z­leba dalios aduRebisa da gafiltv­ris gareSe. bolo dros SeimCneva fi­neTis sas­meli wylebis eqsportis aqtivizacia. am sferoSi fi­neTs SeuZ­lia gaimeoros mobiluri telefonebis `nokia­sa” da celuloza-qaRaldis warmoebis produqciis gayi­dvaSi miRweuli warmateba.

fineTs gaaCnia ganaTlebis saukeTeso da sain­tereso sistema. fine­lebma did warmatebas miaRwies telekomuni­kaciis ganviTarebaSi, xis ga­damamuSave­bel teqnologia­Si. garda amisa, fineTs aqtiuri biznesi aqvs ru­seTis Crdilo-dasavleT regionSi. fineTSi swav­la SeiZleba gadaiqces ruseTis erT-erT kompaniaSi karieris Seqmnis winapirobad.

bunebriv da istoriul-ekonomikur Tavisebure­baTa mixedviT, fine­TSi SesaZlebelia gamoyofili iqnes Semdegi raionebi: samxreT fineTi cent­riT _ q. helsin­ki; dasavleT fineTi qveynis Zveli dedaqa­laqiT_Turku; ce­ntraluri fineTi msxvili cent­riT _Tampere. aR­mosavleT fineTis teri­toriaze ganla­gebulia qvey­nis umsx­vilesi porti _ Kotka. fineTis Crdi­loeTs iWers Laplandia cen­triT q. Rovaniemi. olandis kunZuli _ es aris saxelmwifo saxelmwi­foSi. kunZulis mcxovrebni yovelTvis iTvlebod­nen saukeTeso mezRvaurebad da me­Tevzeebad. helsi­ngSi turistebs xSirad sTavazoben Sem­degi saxis eqs­kursiebs: helsingis xidebisa da arxebis daTva­liereba, sazRvao kruizebi (gaseirneba) sauzmiT, eqsku­rsia ko­tkuSi da a.S. aq agreTve tardeba sxva­dasxva saxis Sejibreba. fineTis Zveli deda­qalaq­is_Turku-s erT-erT RirsSesaniSnaobas warmoad­gens kaTedralu­ri krebuli _ liute­ranis gamo­qvabuli da fineTis erovnuli sviatinia.

fineTs gaaCnia Zvirfasi arqiteqtoruli Zegle­bi. sabori aramarto muzeumia, aramed es aris Camo­sulTa, kerZod qalaqis Svedi mosaxleobis,  momsa­xurebis adgili. sabori ukve 700 wlisaa. misi ageba daiwyes XIII sa­u­kune­Si, roca Turku gadaiqca qveynis mniSvnelovan savaWro centrad. sa­boris mSeneblo­ba dasrulda 1300 wels. qvey­nis erT-erT ulamazes adgi­l­ad iTvleba centraluri fineTi. es aris ku­nZulovani mxare. magaliTad, q. kuopi­oSi, romelic ganlagebulia kallavesis kunZulis sana­piroze, aq turis­tebs sTavazoben zRvaze gaseirnebis udi­des arCevans. portidan yoveld­Riurad miemarTeba pata­ra gemi da zRvis avtobusebi. cnobili finuri ga­mo­naT­q­vamia `moiwye Tavidan sauna, xolo Semdeg isauzme saxl­Si”. sauna finuri cxovrebis wesis ga­nuyofeli nawilia. TavSekavebuloba, sinele, seri­ozuloba, siCume da sizu­ste _yovelive es finele­bis qcevis Tavi­se­burebaa. TxilamurebiT sriali, Tevzaoba da hokeis TamaSi _ finuri sidu­mloebaa. fi­ne­TSi Sesvlis nebarTvis misaRebad gaicema vize­bi. fineTSi uvizod Sesvla SesaZlebelia CrdiloeTis qveynebis (daniis, islandiis, Svede­Tis da norvegiis) da evrokavSiris moqalaqeebisaTvis.

 

Sveciis turistuli potenciali da misi gamoyenebis SesaZleblobebi

 

Svecia _es aris qveyana, romelsac uWiravs ska­ndi­naviis naxe­varku­n­Zulis udidesi nawili. skandi­naviis mTebi mdidaria sasargeblo wiaRi­se­uliT. Sveduri fo­ladis sxmuli, romelic damzadebulia adgilo­brivi rkinis madnisagan, iTvleba yvelaze saukeTesod mTels msoflio­Si. samxreT SvedeTSi bevri tbaa. aq gan­lagebulia smolandis mxare. Sve­deTis mosaxleoba Sea­dgens 9,1 mln. kacs. igi erTe­rovani qveyanaa, sadac mosa­xleobis 90%-ze meti Svedia. SvedeTis zomieri kontinen­taluri klimati ganpirobebulia Semdegi ori faqtoris zegav­lenis Sedegad: 1. Tbili (naleqis) Semodineba at­lan­tiki­dan da 2. haeris civi masebi arqtikidan.

saxelmwifo mowyobis mixedviT, Svecia konsti­tuciur-monarqiuli qve­yanaa. mi­si me­fe yovelwliu­rad nobelis premiiT ajildoebs msoflios yvela­ze mowinave xuT mecniersa da sazoga­do moRvawes. qveynis Semad­genlobaSi Sedis 24 provincia. qveynis dedaqalaqia stokholmi, romelic gaSenebulia ba­l­tiis zRvis sanapiroze mdebare portis gaswvriv. es qalaqi Za­lian lamazia, radganac masSi bevri RirsSesaniSnaoba da muzeu­mia _ erovnuli, Ria cis qveS myofi eTnografiuli muzeumi _ Sokravis­chnitsa, Crdiloe­Tis baRi _ Millas da Vasa. Crdi­loeT evro­paSi yovelTvis dominanti_SvedeTi, po­li­t­ikuri ne­itralitetis SenarCunebiT, ukve TiTq­mis 190 we­lze metia, rac ar monawileobs omebSi. SvedeTs gaaCnia gan­viTarebuli ekono­mika da mosaxleobis cxov­re­bis maRali done. misi ekonomikis safuZvels war­moadgens xis damuSaveba, qaRaldis warmoeba, meta­lur­gia, hi­droenergetika da manqanaTmSenebloba.

SvedeTi musikis eqsportiori qveyanaa. musikal­ur Sve­deTs saxeli mou­x­veWa ansamblma «АББА»-m da sabavSvo mweralma a. lindgrenma. kerZod, misi gmiri (karlsoni) cnobilia milionobiT bavSvisaT­vis. saqme ima­Sia, rom Zveli Sveduri tradiciebis Tanaxmad, maswavlebels ufleba aqvs daagvianos ga­kveTilze 15 wuTiT. SvedeTis universitetebSi me­ca­di­neoba iwyeba di­lis 9 saaTze, magram Tu pro­fesori daagvianebs did­xans, maSin me­cadineoba ga­daideba. jer ar yofila SemT­xveva, rodesac rome­lime maswav­lebels esargebla dag­vianebasTan daka­vSirebiT Tavisi tradiciuli uflebiT. SvedeTis daraionebis gegmaSi SeiZleba gamoiyos sami umsxvi­lesi qalaqi_stokholmi, geteborgi da malmo. sto­kholms uwode­ben `wylis qalaqs”, geteborgi qvey­nis umsxvilesi portia qveynis dasavleTiT mdebare sa­napiroze. Sve­deTis CrdiloeTiT ganlagebulia mravali mo­grZo formis, TevziT mdidari tba. aq aris bevri CanCqeri.

Sveciis CrdiloeT raionebSi zafxulobiT mze ar eSveba hori­zo­n­tze. aq turisti xSirad Sexvdeba endemuri (iSviaTi) jiSis Zvel florasa da faunas, romelic xa­robs adgilobriv mkvi­drTa sacxovre­bel saxlebTan axlos. cnobili saT­xilamuro ku­rorti _ Ope Sedgeba oTxi dasaxle­bisa­gan _Duved, Tegefelli, Ope-Biu da Ope-Biorn. yvela da­saxleba er­TmaneTs ukavSirdeba saav­tobuso marSrutiT. Ope-is maRali donis saTxilamuro kurorti Seesabame­ba yvela saxis saerTaSoriso standarts. maRali te­qnikuri maxa­siaTeblebis gamo kurorts xSi­rad uwo­deben `skandinaviis alpebs”. aq araerTxel Ca­tarda mso­flio Tasis mopovebis mizniT saer­TaSo­riso Cem­pionati samTo-saTxilamuro sportSi.

metad mraval­ferovania qveynis samxreT regio­nis peizaJi. zRvis sana­piro savsea oqrosfe­ri qvi­SiT. aq mdebareobs evropaSi umsxvilesi tba _ Ve­nern. Sve­deTis samxreTiT ganlagebulia skones, ho­landi­sa da smola­ndis mxareebi. skoneSi izrdeba cnobili wiflis tyeebi, aqve gaSenebulia golfis saTamaSo moednebi. lamaz landSaftTan erTad, ho­landis turi­stul mimzidvelobas amaRlebs zRvis grZeli, qvi­Siani plaJebi. es aris saukeTeso  adgi­li zRvis sanapirosTan axlos, Sve­dur qalaqebSi ganla­gebul mcire zomis sastumroebSi turistebis dasasveneblad, romelSic su­fevs provinciuli Sve­deTis gansakuTrebu­li at­mosfero. swored smolan­dis mxares miiCneven Tavad Svedebi namdvil Sveci­ad. aq mdebareobs samefo rezidencia, 15 sofeliT, sadac ganviTarebulia minisdamamu­Savebe­li sawar­moebi. qveynis samxreTiT 16 km-iani xidi qalaq_mal­mos akavSirebs daniis dedaqalaq _ kopenhagenTan.

dasavleT SvedeTis centrad iTvleba qalaqi gete­borgi, romelic gan­lagebulia mdinare_Adjoint-Geta-s sanapiroze. qalaqis mosaxleoba Sead­gens 0,5 mln kacs. geteborgi sididiT meore qalaqia Svede­TSi, xo­lo misi porti mniSvnelovania mTeli qvey­nisaTvis. geteborgSi imyofeba episkopo­sis rezide­ncia da unive­rsiteti. centraluri SvedeTi aris erTgvari `meqa” maTTvis, visac ainteresebs am qvey­nis kultura. dalar­na cnobilia Svedu­ri folk­loris centrad. sadResaswaulo dReebSi aq turis­ti SeiZleba Sexvdes erovnul pijakSi gamowyobil, adgilobriv moqalaqee­bs, mas agreTve SeuZlia Ta­vad miiRos monawileoba saxalxo dResaswaulebSi.

Sveciis dedaqalaqi mdebareobs baltiis zRvis sanapiroze. stokho­lmis metro xelovne­bis Sedev­ria. misi sadgurebis dizainis gafor­me­baSi monawi­leobda aTeu­lobiT moqandake da mxatvari. qalaqSi Seqmnilia ekologiurad sufTa garemo. ro­gorc ze­moT avRniSneT, stokholmSi arse­bobs uamravi muze­umi, romelTa Soris gansakuTrebul aRniSvnas sa­Wi­ro­ebs vasas muzeumi. es aris XVII sa­ukuneSi age­buli (im droisaTvis Zalian didi) samefo xomal­di. misi anZis simaRlea 50 metri. masze damontaJe­bulia 64 tyviamfrqvevi. maTi umra­vlesoba skulp­turuli detalebiTaa damzadebuli. xomaldma pir­velad curva daiwyo 1628 wlis agvistoSi, magram igi SeeCexa mou­lodnelad amovardnil qariSxals da CaiZi­ra. 1961 wels igi aRmoaCines da amoiRes. xomaldi sauc­xood iyo Semonaxuli. axla igi ukve iTvleba muzeumis saukeTeso eqsponatad.

samefo raionSi imyofeba patara, magram Zalian aRi­arebuli muzeumi _Sokravischnitsa, sadac warmod­genilia samefo ojaxis saganZuri: oqro, vercxli, marg­aliti, suvenirebi da sxva Zvirfaseuloba (maT Sorisaa mefe_gustava vazis Spaga da Svedi mefis gvirgvini). stokholmis mTa­var Rir­sSesaniSnaobas war­moadgens samefo sasaxle. es aris uaRresad Zvi­radRirebuli mxatvrul-isto­riu­li saganZuri. ba­ltiis zRvaSi mdebare­obs ori didi kunZuli_elan­di da gotlandi, romlebic Sedian Sve­de­Tis Semad­genlobaSi. kunZuli_elandi cnobilia zRvis moma­jadoebeli sanapi­roebiT. kunZulze mdebare­obs vi­kingebis dros daarsebuli so­feli, im epoqisaTvis da­maxasiaTebeli mTeli Tavisi atributikiT. got­landi yve­laze didi kunZulia baltiis zRvaSi. ku­n­Zu­lis mTavari qalaqia visbiu, romelic dRemde garSemort­ymulia Suasaukunovani myari, damcavi ke­dle­biT da Se­tanilia ЮНЕСКО–s istoriul-kul­turul memkvidreoba­Ta mso­flio nusxaSi. im turi­stul marSrutebs Soris, romelic Se­iZleba SeTa­va­zebuli iqnes SvedeTSi damsvenebelTaTvis, aRsa­niSnavia giotis arxi, romelic aer­Tianebs stokho­lmsa da geteborgs. aq turistebs SeuZ­liaT daaT­valieron monastrebi, uR­rani tye da bevri sxva RirsSesaniSnaobani.

axlaxans turizmis sfe­roSi moRvawe speciali­stebma gamoacxades konkursi msoflioSi yvelaze popularuli adgilis gamovlenaze. es kon­kursi Ca­atara turizmis sfero­Si umsxvilesma saerTaSori­so Jurnalma: `erovnu­li geografiuli mgzav­ri” («National Geographic Trave­ler). Svede­T­ma bevr aspe­qtSi SeZlo gaemarjva am konkur­sSi, rac ZiriTa­dad miRweuli iqna misi xeluxlebeli, mwvane bune­bis pirvelyofili saxis SenarCunebiT, Zveli lan­dSaftis SenaxviT, Tanamedrove turistuli infras­t­ruqturis SeqmniTa da ekologiurad sufTa agra­ruli produq­ciis SeTavazebiT.

 

norvegiis turistuli potenciali da misi gamoyeneba

 

norvegia, saeqskursio mogzau­robis da das­ve­ne­bis TvalsazrisiT, Tanamedrove etapze turistebi­saTvis wa­rmoadgens erT-erT yvelaze popu­larul qveyanas. norve­giuli xeobebi moicaven atlantikis ok­eanis yve­laze Rrmawylebian tbebs, romlebic ga­nlagebulni arian CanCqerebiT aRsavse da myinvarw­verebiT cadabje­nil maRal mTebs Soris. es tbe­bi Camoyalibda myinvar­wverebiT, romlebic xangrZli­vi gamyinvarebis peri­odSi sul uf­ro SeiWra Rrma xeobebSi. msoflioSi yvelaze popularuli adgi­lebis gamovlenis mizniT, turizmis sfero­Si aRia­rebuli Jurnalis _ erovnu­li geografiuli mgzav­ris mier Catarebul konkursSi swored norvegiis tbebma gaimarjva. isini mTel msoflioSi cno­bi­lni arian TavianTi ga­numeorebeli si­lamaziT. konkur­sis gamar­jvebuli gaxda norvegiuli kurortebi.

turistebs SeuZliaT daaTvalie­ron iuneskos msof­lio ku­lturuli faseuloba­Ta nusxaSi Seta­nili nor­ve­giis ZiriTadi Rir­sSesaniSna­oba­ni, mag., mdinare_Han­seatic, erT-erTi Zveli da lamazi cixe-simagre_Be­rgenh­us(nor­vegiis samefos I dedaqalaqi). turistebs Se­uZliaT daaTvalieron ganzeisis sana­piro, romelic cnobilia no­rvegieli kompozito­ris eduard grigis rezidenciiT. 1909 wels daiwyo funqcionireba bergenisa da  os­los damakavSirebe­lma rkinigzam, romelmac gantvir­Ta satransporto gza _ Sognefiorda. 1923wels daiwyes pa­ra­leluri gzis mSenebloba Flom-amde. es gza gaix­sna 1944 wels. aq turists SeuZlia avtomobi­liT Flom-sa da Mirdal-s Soris sul raRac 6 km-is manZilze gaiaros 20 gvi­rabi. tu­ristebs aRafrTovanebs aq arsebuli sao­cari buneba: mdi­na­reebis garSemo arsebu­li Rrma xe­obebi, Can­Cqerebi da Tov­liT dafaruli myinvarwverebi.

norvegia Zveli tradiciebis mqone qveyanaa. XIV –XIX saukuneebSi is eqvemdebareboda daniis da Sve­deTis sa­xelmwifoebs, magram 1905 wlidan man moi­pova damoukidebloba. misi teritoriis udides na­wils wa­rmoa­dgens skandinaviis mTebi. CrdiloeTiT ganlagebis miuxedavad, norvegias gaaCnia zomieri okeanuri klima­ti, rac gamowveulia qveynis sanapi­ros Ta­viseburebebiT. norvegiis CrdiloeTiT sana­piroebis axlos zRvis Selfze aRmoCenilma navTo­bma da gazma ki­dev ufro gaamdidra am qveynis ener­ge­ti­ka. no­rvegia Tevzis eqs­portiori msxvi­li mo­nopolisturi qveyanaa. igi, SvedeTis msgavsad, aris kon­stitu­ciuri monarqia, moicavs 19 provincias.

norvegiis dedaqalaqi _ oslo mdebareobs qvey­nis samxreTiT. misi mTavari RirsSesaniSnaobaa sku­lptulu­ri par­kebi (Vigellana da Trampoline Holmen­koln), muzeumebi: Vi­king Ship da Kontiki. oslos garda, norvegiaSi Se­iZleba gamoyofili iqnes ori ZiriTa­di turistuli rai­oni: 1. Sognefjord, romelic ika­vebs qveynis sa­m­xreT-centralur nawils da 2. Crdi­loeT norvegia. turistuli regi­onis _Sognef­jord-is  ukiduresi CrdiloeTiT mdebare raionia_ar Romsda Northernmost, romlis centrs war­moadgens qa­laqi _ Alesund, romlis savizito baraTia uamravi Suasau­kunovani Sedevri, romantikuli fasadiTa da Seno­ba-nagebobebis moxatulobiT. es regioni aris nor­ve­giis TevzWeris erT-erTi mni­Sv­nelovani centri.

CrdiloeT norvegiis turistuli potenciali. Crdi­loeT norvegiis centralur qalaqs warmoad­gens qalaqi_Bode. am regionSi mdebareobs kunZu­li _Lofoten. es kunZu­li cnobilia maRali mTe­biT, la­mazi platfor­mebiTa da veluri sanapiro landSaf­tiT. turistebisT­vis Crdilo­eT norvegiis popula­rul turs warmoadgens murmanskis mxarec Semdegi marSrutiT: murmanski_tro­msi_bode_lofote­nis ku­nZulebi_tromsosi_ Crdi­loeT kabo_kirkene­si_ mur­manski. am turis saidumlo­ebas warmoad­gens Crdi­loeT norvegiis sanapiros gaswv­riv _bodedan kir­kenesamde sazRvao kruizis mowyoba.

norvegia saTxilamuro sportis samSobloa. za­mTris kurortebma aq ganviTareba praqtikulad da­iwyo evropis ZiriTadi saxelmwifo centrebis Ca­moyalibebisTanave. amas bevrad Seuwyo xeli im ga­remoebam, rom zam­T­ris se­zoni norvegiaSi yvelaze grZelia mTel kontine­ntze. Yaylo aris norvegiis yvelaze cnobili da popularuli sa­m­To-saTxila­muro kurorti. aq tardeba saerTaSoriso konkursi TxilamurebiT srialSi. mas gaaC­nia kargad organi­zebuli baza da zamTris saxeo­bis sportis ganvi­Tarebis saukunovani tradicia. Yaylo-s xSirad uwo­deben `alpur qalaqsac”, radgan 1935 wels sa­mTo-saTxi­lamuro Sejibreba Catarda swored am qalaq­Si, sadac Tovli devs mTe­li wlis ga­nmavlobaSi.

maRali cnobadobiT sargeblobs patara qalaqi _Lille­hamer, rome­lic mdebareobs tba _Mjesa-s sana­piroze. 1994 wels aq Catarda zamTris olimpiuri TamaSebi. Haf­jell aris 1994 wlis olimpiuri Cempiona­tis Catarebis ad­gili. es kurorti mdebareobs qa­laq _ Lille­hamer-idan 15 km-is da­SorebiT. samTo-saT­xilamuro kurorti `TeTri mTa”_es aris norvegi­eli elitaruli sazogadoebis dasvenebis sanukva­ri adgili. aq yovelwliurad tardeba msoflio Ce­mpionatis mosamzadebeli etapebi. agreTve popula­rul kurortebs wa­rmoadgenen Gausdal, Tala da Hem­sedal. zamT­ris kurortebze spo­rtul RonisZiebaTa garda, norvegia sTavazobs turistebs ZaRlebiT, sku­terebiT, navebiT da cxenebiT gaseirnebas.

dania iWers naxevarkunZul _ Jutland-is da misi mim­debare kunZu­lebis mniSvnelovan nawils. admini­straci­uli TvalsazrisiT, qveyana Sedge­ba 14 mxa­risagan. misi mosaxleoba Seadgens daaxloebiT 5 mln kacs. isini erovnebiT ZiriTadad danielebi da germanelebi arian. daniis saxe­lmwifo wyoba aris konstituciuri monarqia. misi ofi­cialuri ena daniuria, xolo religia ki _ luTe­ranuli. daniis pirveli istoriuli Zeglebi Ta­riRdeba Cvens wel­Ta aRricxvamde VIII_VII saukuneebiT. daniis teri­toriaze I samefo Ca­moyalibda VIII s-Si. XVIII s-dan dania gaxda kolonizatori qveyana. mas dap­yrobili aqvs grenlandi­is kunZulebi.

nawili II.

daniis turistuli RirsSesaniSnaobani

 

daniis reliefi warmodgenilia dablobebiT da bo­rcvebiT. misTvis damaxasiaTebelia sa­ocrad rbi­li, zo­mieri Crdilo-kontinentaluri proa­tlanti­kuri klima­tiT. misi Ziri­Tadi turistuli RirsSe­saniSnaoba Tav­mo­yrilia dedaqalaq _ kopenhagenSi. am istori­uli qala­qis centrSi dgas cnobili da­nieli sabavSvo mwer­lis, XIX saukunis udidesi me­zRapris hans kristian an­der­senis Zegli, xolo ko­penhagenis SesasvlelSi ganla­ge­bulia msoflioSi cnobili andersenis zRaprebis gmi­rTa qandakebebi. da­niis dedaqalaqis RirsSesaniSnaobebs Soris gan­sakuTrebul aRniSnvas saWiro­ebs XVIII sauku­neSi agebuli amalienbor­gis sasaxleTa kompleqsi. am sasaxlis oTxi erTnairi Seno­ba ga­nlagebulia er­Tmane­Tis sapiri­spi­rod oktagonalis moednis cent­rSi, sadac aRmarTulia cxenze amxedre­bu­li fre­derik V-s Zegli. niuhaunis ar­xi es is adgilia, sa­dac turistebs Seu­ZliaT isargeblon egzotikuri, Zveli sti­lis ludis barebiT.

samefo gvardia (kopenhageni, dania). turistebis inte­resSi Sedis daniis kunZulebic. kunZuli _ ze­landia aris qveynis komerciuli centri. aq aris ulamazesi plaJebi, tbebi, tyeebi da sasaxleebi. kun­Zul_Fin-s uwodeben `daniis baRs”, sadac ga­nla­gebu­lia aseulobiT cixe-simagre, mravali pirvel­saxiT Semonaxu­li Zveli soflebi da soflis ti­pis dasaxlebebi. `daniis baRi” Riaa yvela damTva­lierebl­isaTvis, magram daniis mTavari RirsSesa­niSnaoba mainc aris Tavad danielebi _ TavianTi megobruli stumarTmoyvareobiTa da iumoriT.[2]

fareris kunZulebi daniis avtonomiuri olqia, ro­m­elic mdebareobs atlantikis okeanis Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT da moi­c­avs 18 dasaxlebul da ram­denime dausaxlebel kun­Zuls. igi mdebareobs nor­vegiis zRvas da islandias Soris. misi centria ku­nZuli-qalaqi_Torshavn. fareris ku­nZulTa adgilo­briv RirsSesaniSnaobebs warmoadgens mravali tra­dici­uli, istoriuli muzeumi, xelovnebis ga­l­erea da uZvelesi monasteri. turistebs agreTve iz­i­davT skuterebiT gaseirneba da zRvaze Tevzaoba.

 

 

islandiis turistuli RirsSesaniSnaobani

 

islandia mdebareobs atlantis okeanis Crdi­loeT nawilSi. subarktikuli adgilmdebareobis miuxedavad, klimati aq SedarebiT rbilia. ianvris saSualo tempera­tura am qveynis sanapiroebze mer­yeobs 0-dan 20-mde, xo­lo ivlisSi ki mxolod _ 10-dan 150-mde. es aris Strim-is yureSi haeris nakadebis zegavlenis Sedegi, romelic ar aZlevs kunZuls gaxdes `kidobani” da gascdes arqtikul sivrces. myinvarebi da vulkanebi _ es aris islan­diis imi­ji. igi emateba am qveynis ulamazes CanCqerebs da mi­wisqveSa Tbil wylebs (geizerebs), romlis Tbo-energiac gamo­iyeneba Seno­bebis gaTbobisaTvis. is­landia naklebad dasaxlebuli qveyanaa, romlis mosaxleobac Seadgens sul raRac 290 aTas kacs.

islandiis `karibWis” pirveli gamxsneli iyvnen nor­vegieli mezR­va­u­rebi. am qveynis ekonomikis sa­fuZvels warmoa­dgens meTevzeoba. is­lan­diaSi tu­rizmis ganviTareba dakavSirebulia, upirveles yo­vlisa, bunebrivi RirsSesaniSna­o­bebis _ atraqcio­nebis, myi­nvarebis, vulkanebis, geizerebisa da sxva­Ta daTvalie­reba­s­Tan. mJave wylebi am qveyanaSi wa­r­moadgens samkurnalo-gama­ja­nsaRe­beli turizmis ganvi­Tarebis safuZvels. qveynis dedaqalaqia _ re­ikiaviki. misi RirsSesaniSnaobebia erovnuli muze­umi, samefo ga­lerea, msoflios uZ­velesi parlamen­ti da ameri­kis naCu­qari Zegli_Halgrima Leif Eri­qson.

islandiis terito­ri­a­ze SeiZleba gamoyofili iqnes oTxi turistu­li regioni: dasavleT isla­n­dia, Crdilo­eT islandia, aRmosavleT islan­dia da samxreT islan­dia. dasavleT islandias miekuTvne­ba reikiaviksa da klopningnesis naxevar­ku­n­Zulebs Soris mimdebare teri­toria. aq mdeba­re­obs vul­kani _Snayfedlsyokudl-is”, rom­lis simaRlec Seadgens da­axloebiT 1,5 km-s. CrdiloeT islandiis teritoria moicavs 8 naxevarkunZuls, rom­le­bic erTmaneTisgan iyofian sruteebiTa da gruntebiT _ am raionSi ga­nlagebulia erovnuli parki _Yokulsaarglyufur. Crdi­loeT islandiis de­daqalaqia qalaqi Akureyri. aq popularulia ekologiuri turebi.

aRmosavleT islandiis savizito baraTia myin­va­ri _ Vat­nayo-kudla da adgilobrivi atraqcionebi. aq agreTve agebulia saborne terminali, romelic islan­dias akavSirebs fareris ku­nZulebsa da nor­vegiasTan. samxreT islandiis simbolikas warmoad­gens Can­Cqerebi.

turizmis ganviTarebis Taviseburebebi baltiispireTis qveynebSi

baltiispireTis qveynebi dasavleTis maRalgan­viTarebu­li qveynebis turistebisaTvis warmoadgens erT-erT xelsayrel dasasvenebel, magram turistu­li potencialis mixedviT, jer kidev arasrulyo­filad Seswav­lil regions. es aris erTgvari spe­cifi­kuri turistuli regioni, rome­lic moicavs baltiis zRvis sa­napirosTan mdebare qveynebs _ es­toneTs, latviasa da litvas, ruseTis da­savleTiT _ kaliningradis mxares.

 

latviis turistuli potenciali da misi amoqmedeba

 

latvia mdebareobs baltiis zRvis aRmosavleT sana­piroze. am qveynis landSafti moicavs dablobs da borcvebs. latviaSi 3000-ze meti tba da mra­vali mdina­rea. teritoriebis 40% dafaru­lia tyiT. am qveyanaSi cxovrobs daaxloebiT 2,5 mln kaci, rome­lTa 60% erovnebiT latvielia, 30% _ rusi, xolo danarCeni 10% _ sxva erovnebis adamianebi arian. la­tvia­Si sa­mi umsxvilesi (ventspil­sis, rigisa da liepaias) porti. latviis turis­tul resursebs ga­neku­Tvneba riga, iurmala da sigulda.

riga aris latviis dedaqalaqi. dReisaTvis, ba­ltiis zRvis sanapiroze igi aris, sididis mixed­viT, meore qa­laqi (peterburgis Semdeg). rigaSi bev­ri arqiteqturuli Zegli da nagebobaa. kerZod, es­enia: Zveli rigis raioni, saxlis tipis sakaTedro taZari, wminda ioanes, wminda iakobis, wminda petr­es eklesiebi, paraxovis koSki da SvedeTis karib­We. iurmala aris parkis tipis qalaqi, romelic mdeba­reobs rigidan 20 km-is daSo­re­biT. is gadaWimu­lia rigis srutemde 30 km-is farglebSi. zRvidan movar­dnili Zlieri qaris SeCerebis mizniT dunais sana­pirosTan, rigis sru­teze gaSenebulia fiWvis xel­ovnuri, qarsacavi tyeebi, rac xels uwyobs gansa­k­uTrebuli klimatis formirebas. iurma­las centri mimzidvelia saseirno zoniT, sadac agebulia sxva­dasxva saxis atraqcionebi _ Ria ti­pis kafe-barebi, restornebi da saTamaSo klubebi. sigu­lda aris rigidan 50 km-is daSorebiT mdebare gauias erovnu­li parkis administraciuli centri. es qa­laqi xa­siaTdeba Tavisi ganumeorebeli mSveni­eri bunebiT.

 

 

litvis turistuli potencialis amoqmedebis gzebi

 

litva mdebareobs baltiis zRvis sanapiroze. qveyanaSi daaxloebiT 760 mdinare, 2800-ze meti tba, 5 erovnuli da 30 regionuli parkia. tye iWers li­tvis saerTo teritoriis 30%-s. am qveynis samxre­TiT gaSenebulia ekologiuri TvalsazrisiT, mTel bal­tiispireTSi yvelaze sufTa tye,. amitom aq gan­lagebulia cnobili gamajan­saRebeli obieqtebi da kurortebi. litvis mosaxleoba Seadgens 3,5 mln kacs, romelTagan 80 % erovnebiT litvelia, 8 % _ rusi, xolo 7 % ki _ poloneli.

vilniusi aris litvis dedaqalaqi. igi qvey­nis umsxvilesi samrewvelo-kulturuli centria. qala­qis daarsebis TariRia 1323 weli. 1795 wels, ruse­Tis imperiasTan litvis mierTebis Semdeg, vilniu­si gadaiqca guberniul centrad. 1990-ian wlebamde, mosax­leobis raodenobis mixedviT, es qalaqi iyo mesame ad­gilze moskovisa da peterburgis Semdeg. vilniusis mniSvnelovan arqiteqturul ko­mpleqss warmoa­dgens Zveli qalaqi _kaunasi zamkovis mTaze mdebare gediminasis koSkiT. igi mdebareobs litvis centrSi, aRmosav­leT evropis gzajvaredinze. kau­nasi Tanamedrove, lama­zi da mwvane qalaqia. aq mde­bareobs didi raodenobiT litvuri umaRlesi sas­wavlo dawesebuleba, bevri muze­umi da evropaSi erT-erTi yvelaze uZvelesi muxis tye.

druskininkai aris litvis samxreTiT mdebare kon­tinentaluri klimatis barneologiuri klima­ti. wiwvo­vani tye, didi raodenobis tba da mdina­reebi, mineraluri wyaroebi da garemo bunebis si­sufTave aq izidavs turi­stebs mTeli wlis ganmav­lobaSi. klaipeda bal­tiis zRvis sanapiroze mdeba­re msxvili sazRvao portia, rome­lic ar iyineba zamTris periodSi. igi, sididiT mesame, xolo asa­kiT _erT-erTi uZvelesi qalaqia mTel litvaSi. mi­si siZvelis maxasiaTebeli niSania faxvarkovis ar­qiteqtura. palanga aris litvis erT-erTi yvelaze ganviTarebuli sakuror­to centri, romelic mdeba­reobs baltiis zRvis sanapi­roze, klaipediis Crdi­loeTiT 25 km-Si. palangis, ro­gorc kurortis, po­pularoba iwyeba XIX saukunidan, ro­ca pirveli da­msveneblebi mieZalnen zRvas, qviSis plaJebs da fi­Wvis tyes. kurortis mTavar RirsSesaniSna­obas wa­rmoad­gens palangis botanikuri baRi, romelic ga­Senebulia parkis arqiteqturis tradiciebis mixed­viT. gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs gal­ves tbis ulamazes kunZulze mdebare cixe-simagre. igi agebulia XIV_XV ss-Si, romelic Tavis droze wa­rmoadgenda litvis Tavadebis rezidencias. kurSis ne­ringa 98 km sigrZis mqone viwro naxevarkun­Zulia, romelic erTmaneTisagan yofs baltiis zRvasa da lit­vis samxreT-dasavleTiT mdebare kurSis yures. aq Ziri­Tadad isvenebs isini, vinc amjobinebs ganma­rtoebas. mas aqvs erovnuli parkis statusi. buneba aq daculia gansa­kuTrebiT zRvis sanapiroze.

 

estoneTis turistuli potencialis amoqmedebis gzebi

 

estoneTi mdebareobs evropis Crdilo-aRmosav­leT nawilSi, baltiis zRvis fineTis yuris samx­reT sanapi­roze. es aris mindor-velebad gaS­li­li qveyana, sadac 1000-ze meti tbaa. mxaris udidesi si­mdidrea tye. es­to­ne­Ti zRvispirad mdebare saxelm­wifoa, romelsac miekuTvneba 1500-ze meti kunZu­li. igi turistebs izidavs Tavisi arqiteqturuli da istoriuli RirsSesaniSnaobebiT, unikaluri buneb­rivi nakrZalebiT, gamajansaRebeli da aqtiuri da­svenebisaT­vis saWiro saukeTeso SesaZleblobebiT.

talini aris estoneTis dedaqalaqi. igi qveynis ekonomikuri da kul­tu­ruli cxovrebis centria. am qala­qSi mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi tardeba sxvada­sxva saxis festi­valebi, ga­mofenebi da koncertebi. dedaqalaqSi, romelic sxvada­sxva dros ekuTvnoda danielebs, germanelebs, Svedebs, rusebs, istoriu­li Zeglebi bevrad ufro mravalferovania, vidre evropis nebismier sxva qalaqSi. piarnu aris yvela­ze cnobi­li estonuri kurorti. igi mTel baltiis­pireTSi dasvenebis erT-erTi yvelaze popularuli adgilia. es­tonelebi mas uwodeben qveynis sazafxu­lo dedaqalaqs. es kurorti aRiarebulia Tavisi farTo plaJebiT, Tbi­li zRviT, bulvarebiTa da mSvenieri arqiteqturuli nagebobebiT.

samxreT estoneTi cnobilia tyis borcvebs So­ris mdebare cisferi tbiT, romelic gadaWimulia e. w. `oq­ros” mindvrebidan `ganTiadis varskvlavam­de”. aq aris bevri didi Tu patara (saojaxo tipis)  sastumro da `turistuli sofeli”, sadac turists SeuZlia cxeniT gaseirneba, zRvaze banaoba an das­veneba mwvane bunebasa da mSvid gare­moSi. samxreT estoneTSi mdebare­obs qveynis, sidi­diT, II qalaqi _ tartu, romelic cnobilia Ta­visi univer­sitetiT.

Tema 6.


samxreT evropis turistuli potenciali

nawili I.

samxreT evropa aerTianebs qveyana­Ta oTx did jgufs. esenia 1. pire­ne­is naxevarkunZu­lis qveynebi: espaneTi, portugalia, andora da gib­ral­tari; 2. apeninis naxevarkunZulis qveynebi: ita­lia, san-mari­no, vatikani; 3. balkaneTis naxevarkun­Zulis qveyne­bi: rumineTi, bulgareTi, saberZneTi, albaneTi, ma­kedonia, serbeTi, bosnia-hercegovina, xorvatia, mo­ntenegro, kosovo; 4. xmelTaSua zRvis qveynebi: mo­nako, malta da kviprosi.

 

pireneis naxevarkunZu­lis qveynebis turistuli potenciali

espaneTis turistuli RirsSesaniSnaobani

espaneTi mdebareobs dasavleT evropaSi, ker­Zod, pireneis naxevar­ku­n­Zulze. misma xelsayrelma ekonomikur-geografiulma mdebareobam qveyanas gza gauxsna `axali samyaros” _ amerikis aRmoCenasa da dapyrobaSi. sazR­vao vaWrobis ga­nviTarebam gamoiw­via msxvili saporto qalaqebis Camoya­libeba, rom­le­bic gadaiqcnen cnobil kurortebad. espa­neTis dedaqalaqi_ madridi gan­lagebulia mdinare _ Man­sana*-res-is sanapiros teritoriaze.

Tana­medrove etapze, espaneli is­torikosebi er­Txmad am­tki­ceben, rom sityva `madridis reali” ar­abuli warmo­Sobisaa. rogorc cnobilia, espa­neTi didxans imyofebo­da arabeTis xeli­suflebis zegav­lenis qveS. qa­la­qis da­arseba dakavSirebuli iyo arabe­Tis emiris muhamedis mi­er damcavi barierebis mSe­neblobasTan, es­panelTa mxri­dan arabTa dampy­rob­lebisagan TavianTi miwebis gaTavi­su­flebis da da­sabruneblad SebrZolebis SesaZ­lo mcdelobisa­gan Tavdac­vis mizniT. XV saukunis bolos espanel­Ta da arabTa Soris gamarTuli brZolis Sede­gad mTe­li iberiis naxevarku­nZu­li gaTavisuflda damp­yro­blebisagan. ma­d­ridisaTvis gadamwyveti gaxda 1561 we­li, roca mefe filipma saxel­mwi­fos dedaqa­laqi tole­dodan gada­itana madridSi, ris Sedega­dac ma­d­ri­di ga­daiqca espaneTis samefo cxo­v­rebis cent­rad. madridis mTavar Rir­sSesaniSnaobas war­moad­gens arqiteq­turuli ansambli `sasaxlis teritoria”.

Plasa Meri-ze dilidan gvian Ramemde funqcioni­rebs mravalri­c­xovani kafe-barebi, restornebi, su­veniris ma­Raziebi. turistebs arToben quCis musi­kosebi. msof­lio aRiarebiT sargeblobs mu­zeumi _ Pra-up, sadac Tavmoyri­lia espanuri, italiuri, ni­derlanduri, flamanduri da germanu­li skolis mxatvarTa eqsponatebi. aq turists SeuZlia moi­na­xulos el-grekos, velaskesis, goias da sxva dide­bul xelovanTa tiloebi. madri­dSi agreTve SesaZ­lebelia turistma daaTvalieros xelovne­bis ero­v­nuli muzeumi, xelovnebis centri, erovnuli arqi­teqtoruli muzeumi samefo sasaxle, sami­nistroe­bis Senobebi, madridis fosta, telegrafi daa.S.

mosaxleobis raodenobis (40 mln kaciT), saer­To ekonomikuri maCvene­blebisa da ZiriTa­di saxis (Savi liTonis, gemebis, soflis meurneobis) pro­duqciis warmoebis moculobis mixedviT evrokavSi­ris wevr qveynebs Soris espaneTi iWers Suale­dur adgils. erT dros gavleniani kolo­niu­ri imperia TandaTan kargavs wamyvan produqtebze Tavis mare­gulirebel po­zicias. amitom espaneTs ganixilaven rogorc `ganviTare­bis stadiaze SemorCenil” qveya­nas. amasTan dakavSire­biT turizmis ganviTareba es­pane­le­bisTvis warmoadgens Tanamedrove ekonomikis zrdis SenarCunebis mniS­vnelovan faq­tors. espane­Ti Raribia mineralur-sanedleulo marage­biT (ve­rcxliswylis, qvanaxSirisa da rkinis mad­nis gamok­leb­iT), magram igi mdidaria bunebriv-kli­maturi resurse­biT. espaneTSi SeiZleba gamoiyos ori kli­maturi zona: 1. Tbili, teniani Crdilo-dasavleTi (`mwvane espane­Ti”) da 2. espaneTis samxreT-aRmosav­leTiT mSrali, mcxunvare centri.

`mwvane espaneTi” _ mdebareobs Biskay-is srutis sa­napiroze. aq ha­e­ris masebi moemarTeba atlantiki­dan, aR­imarTeba Cantabr-riyskim-is mTebze, civ­deba da modis na­leqis saxiT. espaneTis samxreTiT miwis didi farTobi xels uwyobs soflis meurneobis ga­nviTarebas. espane­Tis es teritoriebi, miuxedavad maTi bunebrivi landSa­ftis silamazisa, jer kidev sustad aris Seswavlili turistebis mier. met-nak­lebad popularul turistul marSrutebs warmoa­dgens espaneTis centri da aRmosav­leTis sanapiro. qveynis samxreT-aRmosavleTSi klimati Sedare­biT mSralia. aq igrZnoba tropi­kuli afrikis gavlena.

espaneTis samxreT-aRmosavleTsa da centrSi, mSra­li klimatis gamo, mcenareebs aqvT SedarebiT patara, mkvrivi foTlebi. centraluri plato (Me­seta) warmoad­gens yvelaze did, kldovan mTebs ev­ro­paSi. es upirate­sad sasoflo-sameurneo raionia, sadac koncentrirebu­lia tradiciuli kulturebis yurZnis, zeTisxilis xor­b­lis, qerisa da sxva mar­cvleuli kulturebis msxvili warmoeba, magram es­paneTis am regionsac gaaCnia erTgva­ri turis­tuli xibli. mag., ratom ar gaivlis tu­risti cnobili don kixodis mier gavlil gzebs, ro­me­lmac espane­Tis swored am mxaris sasoflo raionebi gaiara.

espaneTis xmelTaSua zRvis sanapiroebi da kun­Zulebi aris am qveynis turistuli `meqqa”. xmelTa­Sua zRvis sana­piro moicavs iseT kurortebs, ro­goricaa: kosta brava, kosta del marezme, kosta del garafi, kosta daurada, kosta azahari, kosta blanka da kosta del soli. agreTve gamoyofen ku­nZu­lovan na­wils, romelSic Sedis: malarka, ibiza, gran kaanaria, tenerife. kosta brava, rac sityva-si­tyviT qarTulad ni­Snavs `velur sanapiros”. esaa kataloniis cnobili sanapiro, romelic gadaWi­mu­lia safrangeTis sa­zRv­ri­dan sakurorto qalaq blanesamde. zRvaSi arse­buli kldeebiTa da gamao­gnebeli sanapiroebiT. mi­si gasaocari sanapiroe­bi _ espaneTis sanapiroebis gamor­Ceuli nawilia. kos­ta bravas met-naklebad cnobil turi­stul centrs warmoad­gens palamosi, lioreti, de-mari, (cnobi­li axalgazrduli kurorti), bleins glourfingi (ro­me­lic gamoirCe­va Tavisi botanikuri baRiT), Toz de maari da sxvebi. kosta del maresme (`merSis sa­napiro”) aris kataloniis samxreT sanapiros gagr­Zeleba, romelic tradiciulad iyo meTevzeebis da glexebis dasaxleba. cnobili turistuli centrebi arian peinid-de-mari, ga­lilei da sxvebi.

XIX saukunis Sua xanebSi aq turizmma ganviTa­reba hpova barselonas mdi­dar macxovrebelTa pir­veli rezi­denci­ebis aRmocenebiT. barselona_ cno­bili turistu­li ce­ntria. aq mdebareobs SenobaTa kompleqsi, cno­bi­li arqiteqtoris a. gaudis `wmin­da ojaxi”, safexburTo moedani _axali banaki, qri­stefore kolumbis Zegli da sxva atraqcionebi. es­paneTis zRvis sanapiros ukidu­res samxreT nawil­Si mdebareobs kosta del-garafi, romlis centrs warmoadgens sakurorto qalaqi _seiTgisi. Semdgom samxreTiT mde­bareobs kost-daurdis sanapiro, ro­me­lic, patara, oq­rosferi qviSiT mofenili, ulama­zesi sazRvao sanapi­ros gamo, cnobilia `oqros re­gionis” saxelwodebiT. kosta-dauradis siamayes wa­rmoadgens evropis sididiT meore Tematuri parki _ port-eivintouri. valensiis saxelm­wifos zRvis sanapiros momdevno monakveTze ganlagebu­lia te­ritoria _ kosta-azaharas saxelwodebiT, rome­lic mdeba­re­obs q. kastelonis teritorize. es aris xmelTaSuazRvis sana­piro zoli.

kosta-azaharas samxreTiT zRvis sanapiros gas­wvriv mdebareobs qalaqi vale­n­sia, romelic Tavisi savaWro cen­trebis wyalobiT, cnobilia mTel mso­flioSi. igi gadaiqca saerTaSoriso konferencie­bis Catarebis popu­larul adgilad. evropis erT-erT udides da uZveles q. va­lensiaSi mravlad moi­Zebneba kulturuli da arqiteq­turuli Zeglebi. ЮНЕСКО-s mier Zveli savaWro birJa – Lonja aRia­rebulia kacobriobis erT-erT mniSvnelovan Sena­Zenad. qalaqis ganapira raionebSi mdebareobs pla­Je­bi da zRvispira saxlebi. valensia mdidaria ise­Ti ero­vnuli muzeumebiT, rogoricaa xelovnebis muzeumi, kera­mikis muzeumi da sxva.

valensiis samxreTiT mdebareobs `TeTri sana­piro”_ kosta blanka, romelic cnobilia kurorte­biT_ gandia, javea, beni-dormi da alikante. saxel­dobr, beni­-dormi cnobilia imiT, rom mis gankargu­lebaSi imyofeba Te­ma­turi parki_TeiermeiTisi, sa­dac miniaturulad aris wa­rmodgenili xmelTaSua zRvis Zveli legendaruli civi­lizacia. valensiis teritoria _ es ar aris mxolod xmelTaSua zRvis sanapiro, aramed mas ek­uTvnis agreTve Sida sasof­lo raionebic, romelic mog­zaurTa mxridan iwvevs did interess. aq aris bevri nak­rZali. andalusiis ukiduresi samxreTiT mdebareobs sakurorto raio­ni_zRvispira kosta del-soli, rac qarTulad niS­navs `mzis sanapiros”. sanapiros es nawili cnobi­lia `wmida ojaxis” sa­kurorto centris nakrebiT.

andalusiis provinciis dedaqalaqia sevilia, rome­lic aRmocenda ari­s­tokratebisa da msxvili biznesmene­bis dasvenebisa da maTze momsaxure­bis gawevis mizniT. am qalaqis ayvaveba daiwyo amerika­sTan sazRvrebis ga­xs­nis Semdeg. espaneTis mefeebs aq mohqondaT oqro da sxva Zvirfase­ulo­ba ameri­kis axa­li samyarodan, swored amasTa­n iyo dakavSi­rebuli am qa­laqis portis ganviTa­rebac. sevilias miiCneven mezRvaurTa da xelovanTa qa­laqad. yove­lwliurad aq tardeba dResaswaulebi.

turistebs Soris didi popularobiT sargeb­lobs espaneTis kunZulo­vani nawili. kanaris kun­Zulebi mdeba­reobs afrikis sanapiros mopirdapi­red, pi­reneis naxeva­rkunZulidan 1000 km-is daSore­biT. Tavisi vulkanuri warmo­Sobis wyalobiT, mTe­li wlis ganmavlobaSi saukeTaso klima­tiT da Se­saniSnavi pliaJebiT, igi iZleva zRvis yvela gad­momkveTTaTvis datk­bo­bis SesaZleb­lobas. puerto­de-lakruzisa da tenerif-islandis kunZulis samx­reT nawilSi mdebare plaJebi; las-plaias del-inglisis meispi­lou­mis kunZulebze aRmosavleTiT mdebare rouv gran-kanarias plaJebi; lein­ziroutis kunZulze mdebare puerto del karmeni da puento­venturis samefo_ai es aris turistebis mier gad­mocurvis mizezi.

xmelTaSua zRvis wylebSi mdebare kunZuli_be­ilrisi flobs mTel rig Taviseburebebs. aq sainte­reso da gansxvavebuli sanapiroebia, romelic mdi­daria frinvelebi­Ta da Tavisi lama­zi landSaf­tiT. eibizi sididiT mesame kunZulia beilrisis arqipelagze, romelic mTel msofli­o­Si cnobilia, rogorc axalgazrdebis dasvenebisaTvis xelsayre­li erT-erTi saukeTeso kuro­rti. aq gasarTo­bad Camodian mTeli evropis axal­ga­zrdoba. meiloursi beilrisis arqipelagis yvelaze msxvili kunZulia. Ta­visi xelsayreli xmelTaSua zRvis klimatis way­lobiT, meiloursi ganekuT­vneba im kunZulebs, ro­melsac turis­tebis miReba da maTTvis siamovnebis miniWeba SeuZlia mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi.

espaneTi warmoadgens saganmanaTleblo turiz­mis centrsac. espanu­ri ganaTlebis oqros epoqa daiwyo daarsebidan mas Semdeg, rac espaneTis yov­lis­SemZle sa­me­fos zegavlena gavr­celda mTels msoflioSi. espaneTi ar iSurebs xarjebs sazoga­doebis ganaTlebisaT­vis. iq Camsvlels dResac Se­uZlia miiRos kargi ganaTleba. es­paneTis universi­tetebs gaaCnia Zveli tradiciebi. maT Soris yvela­ze pirveli daarsda 1218 wels. espaneTis mecniere­bi tradiciulad iTvlebian Zlier mkvlevarebad is­toriisa da geografiis dargSi. am mxriv mZlav­ria espanuri xelovnebis skolebi.

 

portugaliis turistuli potenciali

 

portugalia mdebareobs samxreT-dasavleT ev­ropaSi, atlantikis ok­eanis yvelaze ukidures ad­gilSi. igi sxva qveynebisagan gansxvav­deba pei­zaJe­biT, mTebiTa da xeobe­biT. CrdiloeT da centra­lur nawilSi mTebsa da gora­k­ebs cvlis samxreTis gaSlili mindvrebi. aq zomieri zamTari da cxeli zafxulia. portugaliis xelisufle­bis mier bolo wlebSi gata­re­buli ekonomikuri poli­tikis erT-erTi umTavresi amocana iyo Tavisi mo­sax­le­obis cxovrebis done mieRwia evrokavSiris qveynebSi ar­sebuli keTil­d­Re­obis donemde. Tanamedrove etapze po­rtugaliis sagareo vaW­robis 80% modis evrokavSiris wevr-qveynebze. iTv­leba, rom evro-zonaSi qveynis gawev­rianebam xeli Seuwyo am qveynis saerTaSoriso avtori­tetis amaR­lebas. ramac dadebiTad aisaxa mis ekonomika­ze. po­rtugalia axdens samrew­ve­lo da sasoflo-sameur­neo produqciis eqsports. misi ekonomikis specia­liza­cia moxda SedarebiT iafi da xaris­xi­ani fex­sacmlis warmoebaze. aq xdeba Rvinis dawurvac. [1]

qveyanaSi aqtiurad viTardeba turizmic. por­tugali­is umTavres tu­ristul resurss warmoad­gens dedaqala­qi _ lisaboni. am qalaqis sanapiro­ebze mdebareobs po­r­tugaliis samxreT provincia _ el-geirvi, qalaqi_ porto da kunZuli_madeira. li­saboni ukiduresi da­savluri qa­laqia mTel evropa­Si. es uZvelesi qalaqi gamoirCeva Ta­visi ar­qiteq­turuli ZeglebiT. lisaboni Tavis stum­rebs sTava­zobs komfortuli sastumroebis sakmaod did arCe­vans, romelic gaTvlilia sxvadasxva fi­na­nsuri Se­saZleblobebis mqone adamianebze. lisabonis dasav­leT­ mxareSi 15 km-is daSorebiT aRmocenda sakmaod po­pula­ruli kurortebi _ Eshtorsh da Cascais. es tradiciulad evropel swavlulTa dasvene­bisa da samefo ojaxTa rezidenciis usayvarlesi adgi­lia. mdi­druli vi­lebi, qveynis centraluri nawi­lis sa­ukeTeso plaJebi, dide­bu­li sastumroebi, restor­nebi, msoflio klasis gol­fis saTamaSo mo­ed­ne­bi, evropis erT-erTi yvelaze aRia­rebuli samorine da `formu­la-1”-is cnobili trasa. yo­velive es milio­nobiT turists izidavs portugaliaSi.

portugaliis yvelaze samx­reTuli provinciaa Ltarve Southernmost, ro­melic atlantikis okeanis Tbili wyle­biT, daaxloebiT 200 km-ze gadaWimuli oq­rosferi qvi­Sis sanapiroebiT, broliviT gamWvir­vale zRvis wyliT, wylisqveSa sanaxaobebiT, Zalze mimzidvelia aqtiuri dasvenebisa da sportiT daka­vebis msurvelTaTvis. yove­live es aqtiurad izi­davs am qalaqSi turistebs. portugaliis sididiT meore qalaqia porto, rom­e­lsac es dasaxeleba mie­ca misi zRvispira-saporto ganlagebis gamo. es qa­laqi warmo­ad­gens navTob-produqtebis, safei­qro da Tevzis sterilizebis samrewvelo centrs, xo­lo misi navsadguri qveynis sididiT meore portia. ramdena­dac qa­laqi izidavs aramarto turistebs, aramed biznes­menebsac, amitom sastu­m­ro biznesis ganviTareba aq sak­maod maRal doneze dgas.

nawili 2.

apeninis naxevarkunZulis qveynebis turistuli potenciali

 

italiis turistuli RirsSesaniSnaobani da bunebriv-rekreaciuli resursebi

italiis mniSvnelovan buneb­riv-klimatur re­surss war­moadgens xmel­TaSua zRvis tipis klima­ti. bevri evropuli qveynis mZlavri kulturuli da id­euri ganviTareba Tu daiwyo sul raRac XIV _XV sauku­neebSi, italiaSi es procesebi da­iw­yo jer kidev XIII sa­ukuneSi, romelmac miiRo aRorZi­nebis (renesansis) epo­qis saxelwodeba. amitom aris italia ase mdidari dide­buli mxatv­rebiT, moqanda­keebiT, poetebiT, arqiteqtore­biTa da filosofo­sebiT. maT So­ris aris dantes, petra­rkis, bokaCos, leo­nardo da-vinCis, miqelanje­los, buonarotisa da sxva moRvaweTa saxeli.

regionuli turizmi italiaSi viTardeba buneb­rivi pirobebisa da is­toriul-kulturuli Zegle­bis arsebo­bis Sesabamisad. Pied-Mont-is mxaris geo­grafiulma adgi­lmdebareobam gansazRvra misi da­saxeleba_`cadawv­di­li mTa”. italiis Crdilo-dasa­vleTiT mdebare es raio­ni esazRvreba safrangeTs da cnobilia Tavisi samTo kurortebiT. am mxaris centrsa da dedaqalaqs warmoad­gens qalaqi Turisch _ CrdiloeT italiis msxvili sam­rewvelo centri. aq ganviTarebulia manqanaTmSenebloba, safeiqro da el­eqtroteqnikuri mrewveloba. aqve ganlagebu­lia firma `fiatis” qarxnebi. Pied-Mont-Si turizmis TvalsazrisiT, met-nakleb interess iwvevs samTo kuro­rtebi (saTxilamuro turizmi, fexiT seirnoba mTebSi, ve­lo-sporti, cxenebiT jiriTi) Turisch-is RirsSesaniSna­obani. mas miekuTvneba arqiteq­turu­li Zeglebi, egviptis muzeumi, savos gale­rea daa.S.

Valle-Daosta-s mxare geografiulad warmoadgens Pied-Mont-is nawils, magram igi sargeblobs avto­nomiiT. igi esazRvreba safrangeTsa da Svei­carias. mxare mdidaria sasargeblo wiaRiseuliT: rkinis, spilenZisa da marma­rilos sabado­ebiT. aq ganlage­bulia araerTi mZlavri hi­droeleqt­rosa­d­guri. is­ini eleqtroenergiiT ama­rageben mTel italias. mxare vita­rdeba ara­ma­rto Tavi­si nedleulis, ara­med brwyinvale samTo-saTxila­muro kurorte­bis wyalobiT. aq arsebobs italiis maRa­lmTiani kuro­rte­bi (3,5 aTas metramde). amis wyalo­biT samTo-sa­Txilamuro sezoni grZel­deba maisamde. bunebis mo­yvarulebs aq izidavT er­ov­nuli parki_Gran-Para­diso da alpebis mTebis mwvervali_Hood of Mont-Blanc.

mxaris_ Liguria Genoa administraciuli centria Liguria. mxare­Si ganvi­Tarebulia soflis meurneoba (xorcis warmoeba da citrusi), metalu­rgi­isa da manqa­naTmSeneblobis mre­wveloba (gemTmSenebloba). liguriaSi tu­rizmi ZiriTa­dad dakavSirebulia zRvaze dasvenebasTan. aq mdebare­obs ev­ropis pres­ti­Juli kurortebi _ Portofino, Rapallo, San Remo, sa­dac tardeba yovelw­liuri musikaluri fes­tivali. Genoa mdidari istoriuli warsu­lis mqo­ne qala­qia. Sua saukuneebis periodSi igi iyo erT-erTi ay­va­vebuli sa­zRvao qveyana, sadac inaxeboda sxvada­sxva epoqis istoriuli Zeglebi: palazo du­ka­le, san-loren­cos sakaTedro taZari. am istoriul qa­laqSi mdebare­obs cnobili me­zRvauris qristefo­re kolumbisa da niko­lo paganinis saxl-muzeumebi.

milani mdebareobs lombardias mxareSi. es aris sam­xreT ev­ropis umsxvilesi samrewvelo, fi­nan­suri da sa­transporto centri. cno­bilia, rom 568 wels romis imperiis vardnis Semdeg, misgan ga­Tavisufle­bulma mone­bma daipyres qalaqi. adgilo­brivi mcxovrebni maT uwo­debdnen barbarosebs (be­arded). Tvlian, rom swo­red am sityvisagan miiRo am miwebma saxelwodeba lombardia. mTel msoflioSi cnobilia milanSi arsebuli `la ska­las” opera. milani iTvleba saopero xelovne­bis daar­sebis ce­ntrad. swored milani gaxda italiuri modis sim­bolo. milanis RirsSesa­niSnao­bas warmoadgens in­dustriuli di­zainis quCa. milanSi damzadebuli aveji cnobilia mTel msof­lioSi. qa­laqis erT-erT Rirsebas warmoadgens sas­tumros stilis duo­mos taZari.

milani warmoadgens sasaqonlo vaWrobis (sho­ping-is) mniSvnelovan centrs. qa­laqis centraluri universal­uri maRazia mdebareobs mTavar moedanze da mas ewodeba `vitorino emanueles galerea”. qa­laqSi Zalze popula­r­ulia fexburTi. aq ganlage­bulia italiis erT-erTi umsxvilesi safexburTo moedani _`san-siro”. milanis samxreTiT alpur mTe­bSi aRmo­savleTidan dasavleTiT iSleba ulamaze­si tbebi _ Garda, Iseo, Como, lugano da sxvebi. lom­bardiaSi turizmis ganviTarebis ZiriTad mimarTu­lebebs gan­e­kuTvneba Semdegi: saeqskursio (milani­sa da Suasaukunovani qalaqebis Ri­rsSesaniSnaobebis da­Tvaliereba), lombardiis mraval, ulamazes tbe­bze das­veneba, gastronomiuli turebi, saqmiani tu­ri­zmi, rome­lic da­kavSirebulia milanSi gamo­fenebSi monawileobasTan.

veneciis turistuli potenciali. regionis _ Veneto ce­ntria qalaqi venecia. ramdenime saukunis ganmav­loba­Si is iyo veneciis respublikis de­daqa­laqi. Suasaukune­e­bis epoqaSi is gamudmebiT ganic­dida im droisaTvis yo­vlisSemZle genuias Tavdas­x­m­ebs. aRmavlobis epoqaSi ve­neciuri respu­blikis samflobelo aRwevda mdinare _ Po River-mde (axla igi erTmane­Tisagan mijnavs Veneto-s da Emilia-Roma­gna mxareebs) da qalaq bergamomde. romelic mdeba­reobs milanis gverdiT. veneciurma respublikam Tavisi damoukidebloba dakarga 1797 wels, roca igi da­ipyro napoleonma da gadasca avstrias. XVI saukunis me­ore naxevarSi veneciuri respublika er­Tgvarad gadaiq­ca aRmavlobis ce­ntrad. aq aRizar­da venecieli mxatvrebi _ Giorgio­ne, Titian, Veronese, Ti­ntoret­to, Caravaggio moqandake _ Benvenuto Cellini.

veneciis geografiuli ganlagebis Tavisebureba ga­nisazRvreba imiT, rom qalaqi ganlagebulia mra­valric­xovan kunZulebze, romelic Semosaz­Rvru­lia sruteebiT. es sruteebi erTmaneTTan dakavSi­rebulia xidebiT. veneciaSi wylis avtobusebi ga­moiyeneboda jer kidev XIX saukunis dasas­r­uls. veneciur arxebSi turistebi SeiZleba gadaadgild­nen mdinaris tramvaiT, romlis si­grZec ramdenime metria, xolo wona 600 kg-s aRwevs. maT amzadeben adgilobrivi saartelo xelosnebi. es xeliT Sro­mis iSvi­a­Ti Sedevria. erTi samdinare tramvais fa­si ramdenime aTeuli aTasi ev­roa. veneciis ZiriTad sagzao arterias warmoadgens didi arxi, romelic qa­laqs or nawilad yofs. yvelasaTvis cnobilia, rom ve­necia dana­wevrebulia ar­xebiT. isini praqti­kulad ar iZ­irebian wyalSi, radganac damzadebu­l­ni arian `лиственниц”-isa da muxis masalisagan.

venecia mTel msoflioSi cnobilia minis war­moebiT. minis warmoe­bis xeloba unikaluria da igi gadaecema Taobidan Taobas. XIII saukunis dasas­ruls qalaqis mes­veurebma gamosces brZaneba vene­ciidan minis yvela mewa­rmis gasaxlebis Sesaxeb. es ganpirobebuli iyo xSiri xanZrebiT. isi­ni sacxov­reblad gadayvanil iqnen veneci­is mezoblad Mura­no–s saxelwo­debis xuT sxvadasxva ku­nZulze. qa­laqis Sua gulSi mdebareobs mo­edani _ Piazza San Marco. aq turistebs SeuZli­aT daaTvalieron vene­ci­is udidesi RirsSesa­niSnaobebi: bizantieli mxa­tvrebis mier mozaikiT moxatuli san-markos taZa­ri, xi­di _ Rial­to, sasaxle (italiel arqiteqtorTa Se­de­v­ri, romelic cnobilia ro­gorc `qvis maqmani”), `ga­yinuli musika” da a. S.

triesta italiis aRmosavleT re­gionis ce­ntria, romelsac gaaCnia mravalsaukunovani isto­ria. ama­ze mo­wmobs mravalricxovani arqiteqturu­li Zeg­lebi. erT-er­Ti maTgania centralur moedan­ze mde­bare oT­xi kontine­ntis Zegli. albaT ikiT­xavT: ra­tom oTxis da ara xuTis? pasuxi aseTia: roca es Zegli aigo avstralia jer kidev ar iyo aRmoCeni­li. Ta­namedrove etapze tries­ta aramar­to itali­is, aramed mTeli CrdiloeT adriatikis msxvi­li saz­R­vao porti da satransporto arxia. emilia _ romis mxaris centria qalaqi bolonia, sadac mdebare­obs mTel evropaSi uZvelesi univer­siteti. mxareSi ganviTarebulia soflis meu­rneoba, kvebis mrewveloba (maRalxarisxiani brin­jisa da Zexvis warmo­eba), manqanaT­mSe­ne­b­loba (fe­raris qar­xnebi). mxaris umsxvilesi qala­qebia: par­ma, modena, Piacenza, Rimini (adriatikis zRvis kuro­rti). aq tu­rizmi dakavSirebulia zRvis kurorte­bis daTvali­erebasTan, tur-mogzauro­bas­Tan qalaqad.

florenciis turistuli mimzidveloba. regio­nis_Tuscany-s centrs warmoadgens qalaqi floren­cia. floren­ci­is RirsSesaniSnaobebs ganeku­T­v­neba: sakaTedro taZari, sasaxleebi, moednebi, Sad­rev­n­ebi, qa­laqis cno­bili quCebi da xidebi, santa-ma­ria-del-fores taZari, san-joanas Zegli, sinopi­is moe­dani da a.S. florencia udides mxatvrTa, mweral­Ta, mecni­er­Ta da moqandakeTa samSobloa, romelTa ricxvs gane­kuTvneba: dante, miqe­lanjelo, makiave­li, galilei, leonardo da-vinCi da sxva. XVI sau­kunis xelovnebis centralur Semoqmeds, aRorZine­bis epoqis uZlieres xuroT­moZR­vars war­moadgenda miqelanjelo buonaroti, romelmac Seq­m­na ferwe­ris, qandakebis da arqiteqturis genia­luri Se­dev­rebi. man Tavis na­Sro­mebs STabera feo­daluri saw­yi­sebiT gamyarebul, Rirseba­Ta energia.

leonardo da vinCi erTdroulad iyo mxatva­ric, xelov­nebis Teore­tikosic, moqandakec, arqite­qtoric, maTema­tikosic, fizikosic, meqaniko­sic, as­trologic, biolo­gic da a.S. mas erTdroulad Se­eZlo Tanabrad eSroma aRorZinebis epoqis warmoma­d­genelTa gverdiT da imavd­roulad Seeqmna Taname­drove epoqis udidesi Sedevrebi. Cvenamde moaRwia misma Sedevrebma_`saidumlo saRamoe­bis” freska da `mona liza” (`jokonda”).

perujas turistuli potenciali. peruja aris regi­on_Umbria–s cen­tri, romelic cnobilia Tavisi uni­versitetiT. regions ar gaaCnia zRvaze gasasvl­eli. veluri bunebis gamo, umbriam miiRo `ita­liis mwvane gu­lis” saxelwodeba. aq gavrcelebu­lia ag­roturizmi. tu­ristebis ganTavsebis adgi­lad xSi­rad gamoiyeneba Zveli saxlebi, romelic ganlage­bulia centralur adgilebSi. aq ganviTare­bu­lia sa­Tavgadasavlo turizmi. umb­riaSi daibada cnobi­li xuroTmoZRvari rafaeli, romelmac romSi daa­arsa udidesi samxatvro skola. rafaelma mii­Ro progresuli gadawyveti­lebebi monumenturi mxatv­robis sferoSi. rafaelis Teoriul kvlevaSi aRo­r­Zinebis epoqis zemaRali ide­ebi xasiaTdeba aSka­ra har­moniuli wyobiT. rafaelas Semoqmedebis mwver­valia `wminda madonas” ferwera, romelic inaxeba drezdenis suraTebis galereaSi (germania).

markes mxaris centrs warmoadgens qalaqi anko­na. es sasoflo-same­u­rneo mxare mdebareobs legen­darul adgi­lze, romelic mdidaria isto­ri­uli Ze­glebiTa da saxa­lxo mxatvruli SedevrebiT. dRei­saTvis Suasauku­novani mxare awarmoebs celuloza-qaRalds, romelic italia­Si sargebl­obs myari mo­TxovniT. aq daibada kompozito­ri rosini. zRvis sanapiroze ganlagebulia mci­re raodeno­bis adamianebiT dasaxlebuli, kuror­tebi.

bazilikatis turistuli potenciali. bazili­katis mxare mdebareobs mTian reliefze. mxa­ris centrs war­m­oadgens qalaqi potenca. mxaris qala­qebs Soris yurad­Reba SeiZleba gama­xvildes anti­kur sa­cxov­rebel­ze _ Sassi, romelic aerTianebs tye­ebsa da ga­dasasvlelebs. samxreT italiis am mxa­reSi turizmi sxva raionebTan SedarebiT ufro na­klebad aris ganvi­Tarebuli. aq bune­ba Zalze sasia­mov­noa, magram arasakmarisia turis­tebis ganTavse­bis saSualebebi, xolo so­flad adgilobrivi mo­saxleoba naklebadaa dasaxlebuli, cota aris ga­sarTobi centrebi da maRaziebi.

siciliis turistuli potenciali. sicilia mdebareobs umsxviles kunZul_ frequented-ze, sadac ZiriTadad cxovroben sazogadoebis SeZle­buli fe­nebi. amitom saqonlis fasebi am kunZulze bevrad uf­ro maRalia, vidre sxva provinciebSi. italiis am kunZu­lze plaJebi yvelgan ar aris qviSiani. ami­tom aq reko­mendebulia turistebma SeiZinon da Ca­icvan re­zi­nis sandalebi. xmelTaSua zRvaSi. kun­Zulis sanapiro sami zRvis zolisa­gan Sedge­ba: CrdiloeTiT_tirenis, aRmosavle­T­iT_ ioni­Ceisa da dasavle­TiT _ xmelTaSua zRvis sa­napirosagan. ita­liis ZiriTa­di saxmeleTo na­wilisagan es kunZuli gamoyofi­lia messinis srutiT. si­cilia kontinent­Tan dakavSire­bulia transportiT. sici­liis dedaqalaqia palermo.

xmelTaSua zRvis qveynebis turistuli potenciali

monakos turistuli RirsSesaniSnaobani

 

monako aris ulamazesi samTavro, romelic mde­bare­obs laJvardovani zRvis sanapiroze. monakos eko­nomikis ganviTarebis safuZvels wa­rmoadgens turi­zmi savaW­ro-safinanso saqmianoba (aq mdeba­reobs 800-ze meti saer­TaSoriso ko­m­paniis mmarTve­li ofisi da 50-ze meti banki, rac ganpiro­bebu­lia xelsayre­li sagadasaxado reJimiT). monte-karlo monakos dedaqalaqia. igi cnobi­lia patara saxlebiT. turistebs SeuZli­aT aq daa­Tvalieron mTeli rigi RirsSesaniSnaobani: samTav­ro sasaxle da moedani, okeanografiuli muzeumi, kazinoebi, iaponuri baRi, monakos taZari, monakos samTavros istoriuli muzeumi, sazRvao muzeumi.

 

maltis turistuli potenciali

malta mdebareobs xmelTaSua zRvis centrSi, 93 km-Si siciliis samxreTiT da 288 km-is daSorebiT afrikis sanapirodan. maltis respublikas ukavia maltis arqipe­lagis 300 km2 farTobi. romelic moi­cavs maltis kunZuls, gozos, kamisa da kidev ram­denime dau­saxlebel kunZuls. qveynis dedaqalaqs warmoad­gens valeta. xmelTaSua zRvis tipis kli­mati sa­Sualebas aZlevs turistebs daisvenon mTe­li wlis gan­mavlobaSi. sanapiroze dasvenebisaTvis yvelaze ufro xelsay­reli droa maisidan oqtomb­ramde, xolo SemecnebiTi turizmisa da `mesame asa­kis” ofi­cialur pirTa dasvenebisaTvis xelsayrelia zamTris sezoni.

maltaSi ganviTarebulia mravali saxis turiz­mi. kulturul-SemecnebiTi turizmi dakavSirebu­lia am qveynis tradi­ciul stumarTmoyvareobasTan, maltis kulinarul saidumleobasa da valetis ar­qi­teqturul ZeglebTan. arqipelagis sanapiro Ziri­Tadad kldovania, ris gamoc bevr turists uy­vars aq garujva. xmelTaSua zRvis tipis klimati, kris­talurad sufTa zRvis wyali, plaJis magnituri sila da mzis sxivebi iZleva samkurnalo-gamajansa­Rebel efeqts. am qveynis saganma­naTleblo turizmi dakavSirebulia inglisuri enis Se­mswavlel prog­ramebTan. malta didi xnis ganmavlobaSi iyo ing­lisis kolonia. 1989 wels mixeil gorbaCovsa da jorj buSs Soris swored maltaSi Sedga istori­uli Sexvedra, ramac safuZveli daudo `civi omis” dasasruls.

Tema 5.


dasavleT evropis turistuli potenciali

nawili I.

dasavleT evropas ganekuTvneba safrange­Ti, bel­gia, niderlandebi, luqsemburgi, didi bri­taneTi da irlandia.

 

safrangeTis turistuli RirsSesaniSnaobani

 

safrangeTis dedaqalaqia pari­zi, rome­lic mdebareobs mdinare_ seneze. yvelaze popula­ru­l turistul mimarTu­l­ebaTa mixedviT safrange­Ti iWers meore ad­gils mTel msoflioSi, amerikis Semdeg. am qveynis Sesaxeb saubrisas aRsaniSnavia anri de bornis fraza: `yovel adamians aqvs ori samSoblo _ sakuTari da saf­rangeTi”.

turist­ma parizis bevrad ufro lamazi panora­ma Se­iZleba naxos ei­felis koSkidan, romelic aSe­nda marsel­is moedanze gustav eifelis proeqtis mixedviT, 1887 _89 wlebSi msoflio parizuli gamo­fenisa da safran­geTis burJuaziuli revoluciis asi wlisTavTan dakav­SirebiT. safrangeTis qu­Cebs gaaCniaT kuriozuli dasa­xeleba: aqilevsis, samoT­xis, jojoxeTis, RmerTis, sata­nis, adamis, raias, ba­bilonis quCebi da a.S. aTeulobiT quCasa da moe­dans hqvia gamoCenili adamianebis_hiu­gos, bal­za­kas da sxvaTa saxelebi. isini ata­reben geografi­ul sa­xelebsac: laTi­nuri ameri­kis skve­ri, evropis moe­dani, italiis, argentinis, moskovis qu­Cebi da a. S. parizis saukeTeso Rirseba aris misi cisferi gumba­Ti _ sena. mis sanapiroze dgas notre-dame, pa­rizis RvTi­smSoblis taZa­ri_xelovnebis brwyinva­le nimuSi. misi mSenebloba daiwyo XII saukuneSi. taZars gaaCnia 130 m sigrZe da 48 m sigane. safran­ge­Tis geografi­ul centrs warmoadgens notre-da­me, romlisganac xdeba saf­rangeTSi yvela daSore­bis aTvla. notr-dames siaxloves aRmarTulia ar­qiteqturu­li nimuSi sainte-Capelles samlocvelo, eklesia. isini aages 1248 wels. mkveTri, Ria sa­Rebavebi mas xdis arqiteqturis Zvi­radRirebul Sedevrs.

eliseis turistuli zonebi. eliseis moedani yvela­ze lamazia pari­zis 8500 quCas Soris. masSi gavla sasi­amov­noa weli­wadis nebismier dros, dRi­Ta da RamiT. el­ise­is moedani sam­xedro aRlume­bis Catarebis tradi­ciuli adgilia. elise­is moedanze agebulia naxevarki­lometriani triumf­aluri arka _Arc de Triompe, sa­dac mdebareobs safrangeTis pre­zidentis sasaxle-reziden­cia. seines sana­piroze mdebareobs sasax­le, lamazi Sida ezoebiT, taile­ris parkiTa da franCizis komediuri TeatriT.

louvres SeiZleba ewodos msoflios brwyinva­le muzeumi, romelic f­ranguli arqiteqturuli renesansis epoqis saukuTe­so Sedevria. louv­reSi Tavmoyrilia is­e­Ti msoflio donis cnobili xe­lovanebis (mxatv­robisa da qandakebis) eqsponatebi, ro­goricaa sandro botike­li, leonar­do davinCi, albrext diureri, rafae­l san­zio ale, titiani da sxvebi. aq demonstrirdeba Zveli aRmosavleTis, Zveli sa­brZneTisa da romis unika­luri nawarmebi, agreTve Suasaukunovani Zeglebi. romelic aRmoCn­da arqe­ologiuri gaTxrebis Catarebis Sedegad.

mxatvar-impresionistTa namuSevrebi: manet 4, mo­ne, pissarro, matisi, pikaso da sxvebi eqsponire­bulia dauvers rauanis muze­umSi. guimetis muzeumi eZRvneba Zveli aRmosavleTisa da Zveli egviptis xelovnebas. parizSi muzeumTa usazRvro raodeno­baa. maT Sorisaa rodinis, viqtor hiugos, balzakis da sxvaTa muzeumebi. aq turi­stebi ecnobian Tavi­suflebisa da sicocxlis moyvaru­li qa­laqis cxo­vrebas, aTvaliereben invalidTa saxls, ope­r­as, ko­nservatorias, luqsemburgis sasaxles da sxvebs. axali kaputsis, italielebis, mon-matris, puasone­ris, bonis, eklesiis_seikr-qauer-is, nou-veles, se­n­t-denis, sent-marti­n­is, madelinesa da sxvaTa di­di bul­varebi warmoadgens erTiani da mravali sa­xis quCas 35 metris sisqiTa da 4,5 km. sigrZiT. es raio­ni savsea Tea­trebiT, maRa­zi­e­biT, restornebiT, mni­Svnelovani ga­zeTe­bisa da Jurnalebis redaqciebiT.

Cote Dazur-is napiri (franguli riviera) mdeba­reobs sa­frangeTis samx­reT-aRmosavleTiT ita­liis sazRvarTan, romelic cnobilia prestiJuli kuro­rtebiT: kanis, gra­sses, nicas, vilfranSis, biule­us, mentonisa da anti­besis kurortebi. fran­guli ri­viera _ es aris festiva­lebisa da kar­nava­le­bis Catarebis adgili. Cote Dazur-is na­piri flobs sru­lfasovani dasvenebis organizebisaT­vis saWiro yve­la aucilebel infrastruqturas: avtoba­nis ganvi­Tarebul qsels, saavtomobilo da sarkinigzo ma­gist­rale­bi, romlebic erTmaneTTan akavSirebs sa­f­ra­ngeTisa da danarCeni evropis yvela umsxviles qalaqs. niceSi mdebare saerTaSoriso donis aero­p­orti yovelw­liurad emsaxu­reba 7 mln-mde mgzavrs. sastumro meurne­oba Ziri­Tadad Sedgeba luqsis klasis otelebisagan. aq funqcionirebs 19 saTxi­lamuro kurorti. Cote Dazur–is sanapiros gaaCnia turistebis ganTavsebis saSualebaTa kargad ganvi­Ta­rebuli da Zveli tradiciebis mqone in­dust­ria. amis maga­liTia nicaSi mdebare neg­reskos prestiJuli sastumro.

aRniSnuli sastumro aago henri nergeskom. igi dai­bada 1868 wels buqarestSi Rarib ojaxSi. 15 wlis asak­Si henri gaemgzavra samuSaod ev­ropaSi. is ocnebobda aego sastumro, romelic misi klien­tebis Rirsi iq­nebo­da. henri ocnebobda Cote Dazur-is napirze aego iseTi sastum­ro, sadac stumrebs SesTavazebdnen fufunebas da sau­keTeso komforts. sastumro agebuli iqna cnobili ar­qiteqtoris e. niermanas proeqtis mixe­dviT. misi gaxsna moxda 1913 wels. Tavisi arsebobis pirvelive wels mas sastu­mrom moutana grandiozuli mogeba_800 aTasi fra­­n­kis odenobiT. sastumros Tanamedrove mepatroneeb­ma, TavianTi saqmis ga­g­rZelebiT, sastumros daama­tes xelo­vnebis komponentebi. Tanamed­rove etapze am sas­tumros gaaCnia 140 nomeri, Rire­bulebiT 200-dan 1500 evromde erT RameSi.

`equeiSen” da `meid-pareinisi”  mdebareoben samx­reT safran­geTis mevenaxeobis qalaq bordos cent­rSi. es adgilebi cnobi­lia fiWvis ulamazesi tye­e­biTa da pataraqviSiani pla­JiT, romelic mTavrdeba samxreTiT mdebare baierizis prestiJuli da aris­tokratuli kurortiT. safrangeTis dasa­vleTiT, bretanisa da norma­ndiis teritoriebze mdebare­obs Tavbrudam­xve­vi sanaxaobebi, STambeWdavi, xaverdo­vani kldeebi, qviSiani sanapiroebi, lamazi por­tebi (bresti, li-heivri da a. S), mravali TevzmWeri ge­mebi. normandia aris impresio­nizmis, udidesi mwer­lebisa da poetebis samSoblo. aq agebulia bevri bi­­usti da eklesia-monasteri, sadac imyofeba bevri arqiteqturuli memkvidreobis Zeg­li. mTel msof­lioSi cnobilia san-miSelis nageboba, rome­lic aSenda VII saukuneSi. igi mdebareobs kunZul­ze, qa­laq raun haunfler­Si agebulia po­etebisa da mxat­vrebis Zeglebi. Sua saukuneebis qalaqi _ `ste­int-meil steiniSi” agebulia samefo piratebis mier.

bretanis mTavar RirsSesaniSnaobas warmoad­gens zRvis talRebis mZlavri mimoqceva. mas uwo­deben atlan­tikuri evropis `sunTqvis ritms”. aq zRvis peizaJi da masTan erTad, zRvis sana­piroc yovel eqvs saaTSi icv­leba. safrangeTis Crdiloe­TiT mdebare regioni warmo­adgens belgi­isa da di­di britaneTis karib­Wes. portebi _ `bu­lougni”, `qe­leisi” da rkinigzis terminali evro­atlantikur regions akavSirebs britaneTTan.

`eirdeni” _ es aris regioni, romelic istori­u­lad cno­bilia rogorc franguli Rvinisa da Sin­disferi Sampa­nuris warmoebis centri. luarisa da pau-tu-CereinTis miwebi cnobilia zomieri klima­tiT, luaris mxaris gas­wvriv mdebare lamazi bune­biT, mdinaris xeobebiT, momr­gvalebuli borcvebiT, wyaroebiT da tradiciuli sam­zareuloTi (mag., zRvis produqtebi da bayayis Semwvari fexebi). pau-tu-CereinTi iTvleba koniakis samSo­blod. aq didi raodenobiT arsebobs romis imperiis ep­oqis Zeg­li. mdinare lu­arisi yovelTvis iyo mniSvnelo­va­ni am regionisaTvis. es aris erTaderTi gasasvleli at­lantikis okeanisaken. imavdroulad laurisi aris yvelaze prestiJuli adgili mTel parizSi, radga­nac igi morTulia Zvirfasi qve­biTa da margalite­biT. luarisis gasasvle­ls da Senonsos Camkets wa­rmoadgens cixe_ `Cinounsei”, romelic safrangeTis Crdilo-dasavleTiT _ loTaringiaSi esazRvreba mdi­nare_rainisa da germaniasTan mosazRvre vaesgi­sis qeds. am Zveli sa­mrewvelo raionis centrs ax­la gaaCnia turistuli mimzidveloba. maTi arqi­teqturuli Zeglebi Setani­lia ЮНЕСКО-s msof­lio me­mkvidreobis nusxaSi.

safrangeTis samxreT-aRmosavleTiT mdebare provinciebis _ qoursikisa da leingidousis miwebi sa­frangeTis mdi­dari kultu­ruli warsulis sru­li dadasturebaa. misi RirsSesaniSnaobebi ganla­gebulia leingidou­sis regionis xmelTaSua zRvis sanapiroze. aqvea veluri plaJi. qour­sikis kunZul­ze daibada napo­leoni, romelic cnobilia Tavisi separatistuli ganwyobiTa da gasao­ca­ri brZolis­unarioanobiT. am raionis centri aris safrangeTis umsxvi­le­si porti _marseli. am raionis turis­tul qa­laqebs warmoadgens perpe­ri­ani da monpele.

saf­rangeTis centrSi mdebare rona-alpis, ove­rnisa da limuzenis rai­onebi warmodgenen zamTris saxeobis (upirveles yovlisa sam­To-sa­Txi­la­muro) sportis centrs. aq agreTve tar­deba istoriul-SemecnebiTi eqsku­rsiebi. elzasis regionSi mdebare qalaq strasburgs xSirad uwodeben evropis deda­qalaqs, radganac aq tardeba evrokavSiris parla­men­tis sxdomebi. elzasis bunebis silamazis Sesa­xeb werda nikalai karamzini, Tavis na­SromSi_`rusi mogzauris Canawerebi”: `elzasis ga­saocari buneba, Tavi­si baRebiTa da mindor-ve­liT, ipyrobs aq Camo­sul stu­mars, romelic sixaruliT `ecema” aqauri hae­ris momakvdi­nebeli neqtaris zegavleniT”.

safrangeTi aris Rvinis dawurvis aRiarebuli msoflio cent­ri. qve­y­nis praqtikulad yvela depa­rtments gaaCnia gar­kveuli specifika Rvinisa da sxva saxis delikaturi sa­smelebis damzadebaSi. amitom am qve­yanaSi Za­lze popu­larulia Rvinis tu­rebis Catareba, romelmac SeiZina `saf­ran­geTis Rvinis gzis” saxelwodeba. es turebi xSi­rad aso­cirdeba agrarul turizmSi, romelic sul uf­ro did popularobas iZens mTel ev­ropaSi. sicocx­liT aRsavse adgilebisa da mevenaxeobis ganviTare­bis wyalo­biT, elzasi warmoadgens erT-erT Rirs­SesaniSnav mxa­res_ SesaniSnav Rvinis gzas 170 km-is sigrZiT. am gzaze gavlis dros turistebis aRfr­Tovanebas iwvevs is gare­moebac, rom maTTvis nac­nobia am gzaze mdebare bevri pa­tara qalaqi, gansa­kuTrebiT mkveTr ferebSi SeRebili qalaqi kolma­romi. safrangeTis samx­reT raionSi ganlagebisa da xelsayreli klimatis arsebobis wyalo­biT, kolma­romi warmoadgens msoflio turistuli moT­xovnis obi­eqts. esenia: mar­tinika, gvadelupa, franguli gviana, reiunoni.

saerTaSoriso turizmSi safrangeTi warmoad­gens mniSv­nelovan samTo-saTxilamuro mimarTule­bis mqone qvey­anas. is iTvleba liderad samTo-saT­xilamuro kurorte­bis raodenobis mixedviT. ma­Ti raodenoba 400-s aWa­rbebs. es qveyana liderobs ag­reTve trasis saerTo (6 aTasi m) sigrZisa da (4000 m) simaRlis mixedviT, trasis daxrilobis, mis gaswvriv mdebare danadgarebisa da funikuliore­bis mixedviT. swored safrangeTis alpebSi aris SesaZlebe­li 3900 m simaRlis mqone, mTel ev­ropaSi yvelaze ufro daqanebul saTxilamuro trasebze sriali. aq, SamonSi arsebobs mTel msoflioSi yve­laze grZe­li (22 km sigrZis) saTxilamuro tra­xa. Samoni iTvleba yvelaze Zvel (1893 wlidan moyole­buli) da yvelaze cnobil kurortad safrangeTis alpebSi. didi popula­robiT sargeblobs safrange­Tis sxva samTo-saTxilamu­ro kurortebic, rogori­caa: meJevi, morzini, kurSeveli, mari­beli da sxva.

agreTve sainteresoa turistuli TvalsazrisiT didi britaneTi. didi britaneTi aris konstituciuri monarqia, rome­lic moicavs mma­r­Tvelobis saparlamento da monarqiul formebs. administraciuli Tval­sazri­siT, igi dayofi­lia sagrafoebad.

 

nawili II

didi britaneTis turistuli potenciali

didi britaneTi, sadac cxovrobs 60 mln kaci, mdebareobs bri­tanul kunZulebze. igi aerTianebs 4 istoriul-geog­rafiul mxares: ingliss, Sotlandi­as, uelss da Crdi­loeT irlandias. kunZulo­van-ge­ografiuli gan­lageba karg piro­bebs uqmnis qveya­nas danarCen msoflios­Tan sagareo kav­Sirebis dam­yare­basa da geo-po­litikuri poziciebis gaZliere­baSi. qveyana xasiaTdeba zomieri sub-tropikuli klima­tiT. igi Raribia minera­lur-sanedleulo ba­ziT (nav­Tobis gamoklebiT), magram mdidaria buneb­riv-rekreaciuli da turistuli resu­rsebiT.

didi britaneTi aris konstituciuri monarqia, rome­lic moicavs mma­r­Tvelobis saparlamento da monarqiul formebs. administraciuli Tval­sazri­siT, igi dayofi­lia sagrafoebad. didi britaneTis postindust­-riu­li ekonomika ganviTarebuli saban­ko, sadazRvevo da sazRvao satranspo­rto seqtore­biT aerTianebs depresiul (gemTmSene­blobas, qvana­xSirisa da safeiqro mrewvelobas) da pro­gresul (manqanaTmSeneblobis, navTobmompo­vebel da eleqt­ronikis) samrewvelo dargebs, agreTve soflis meu­r­neobas, romelic orientirebuli mec­xovele­obis produqciis warmoebaze.

did britaneTSi gamoyofen qveynis samxreT-da­savleTi­Ta da samxreT-aRmosavleTiT mdebare Seda­rebiT ganvi­Tarebul regionebs. didi brita­neTis dedaqalaqia lon­doni. es aris istoriuli da kul­turuli centri, rome­lic mdebareobs temzis sana­piroebze. vestminsteris saa­bato, touve­ri da big-benis moedani, londonis tauveri savsea Sua sauku­neebis sai­dumloebebiT. aqvea londonis erovnuli parki. yovelive es didi brita­-neTis dedaqalaqis Rirs­SesaniSnaobaTa mxolod arasruli CamonaTva­lia. lon­donSi mdebareobs 30-ze meti muzeumi, maT Sorisaa bri­tanuli muze­umi, erovnuli galerea da sxvebi. qalaqSi aris daaxloebiT 80-mde Teat­ri. ke­rZod, esenia: kovert-gardeni, samefo-Seqspiris Te­atri da sxvebi. didi popu­larobiT sargeblobs tusaudis saxelobis muzeumi. londoni msxvili bi­znes-centria. aq aris msoflioSi umsxvilesi sane­dleuo birJa, bankebi da sadazRvevo kompaniebi.

didi britaneTi turistuli TvalsazrisiT Za­lze mimzidveli qveyanaa. aq gan­viTarebulia saqmia­ni turizmi, istoriuli adgilebisa da Zeglebis daTvalierebis mizniT ganxorcielebuli eqskursi­ebi, mizan-mimarTuli dasveneba britaneTis provin­ciebSi, saganmanaTleblo turizmi da agreTve spo­rtuli RonisZiebani. londonis garda, turistul cent­rebs ganekuT­vneba inglisis axalgazrda qala­qi_liverpuli, sauniversiteto qalaqe­bi_oqs­fordi da ke­mbriji, inglisis samxreTiT mdebare sakuror­to cent­ri_bornmuti, Sotlandiis qala­qi_edinbur­gi, festi­valebis Catarebisa da xe­lovnebis cent­ri_glazgo, uelsis dedaqalaqi kardifi_Sua sau­kuneebis Zegle­bis moyvarulTa ce­ntri da a. S. di­di britaneTi agreTve cnobilia, rogorc mlocve­lTa centri. aq salocavad modian sxvadasxva qvey­nis kaTolikuri eklesiebis mlocve­lebi.

irlandiis turistuli potenciali. didi bri­taneTis mezobeli qvey­ana_irlandia. sainteresoa rogorc saganmanaTleblo, elitaruli da re­ligi­uri centri. aq yovelwliurad daaxloebiT 50 aTa­si adamiani aRav­lens locvas ivlisSi qrouis wmin­da mTaze. es mTa imyofeba qveynis da­savleTiT qla­udis srutis siaxloves. swored am mTaze cad ama­Rlda Tavis droSi irlandiis mfarveli _ wmin­da patriki. aq igi 40 dRis ganmavlobaSi loculobda RvTis winaSe, sakvebis, sasmeli wylis gareSe.

 

beni­luqsis qveynebis turistuli potenciali

beni­luqsis qveynebs ganekuTvneba belgia, nide­rlandebi, luqsembu­rgi da holandia. sasiamovno zafxuli da zomieri zamTari_aseTia beniluqsis qveynebis Cveu­lebrivi amindi.

belgiisa da niderlandebis turistuli potenciali

belgia ko­nstituci­uri mona­rqiis mqone qveya­naa. belgiis dedaqalaqs _ briusels Tavisi mTavrobi­Ta da parlamentiT, gaaCnia regionis centris sta­tusi. igi imavdroulad warmoadgens evrokavSirisa da natos mini­strTa sabWos Stab-binas. briuseli aris qveynis ekono­mikuri, politikuri da kultu­ruli centri. aq upirate­sad ganviTarebulia saqmi­ani turizmi. qalaqis centrSi mdebareobs grand-palasis cnobili moedani, romelic aR­iarebulia msoflioSi erT-erT yvelaze lamaz skverad. aq mdebareobs XV saukunis goTuri taZari da XIV_XV saukuneebSi agebul taZarTa kompleqsi. briuselis sim­boloa `mwerali biWi”. misi Zegli dgas qala­qis centr­Si, Suasaukunovani bazris moednis ax­los. igi yoveldRiu­rad izidavs aTasobiT turists. briuselSi bevria Tevzis restornebi.

teritoriuli niSnis mixedviT belgia iyofa or na­w­ilad: flandersi, sadac saubroben holan­diuri enis di­aleqtikiT; da valo-niu, sadac domi­nirebs frangul en­aze mosaubre valonelTa sazo­gadoeba. qveynis samx­reT-aRmosavleTiT mdebareobs ardeniis saSualo simaR­lis mTebi, sadac arsebobs samTo-saTxilamuro bilike­bis mTeli masa. aq ganvi­Tarebulia velo-turizmi da mTis mdinareebze daS­vebis eqstremaluri sporti. belgiis CrdiloeTiT mdebare zRvis sanapiro gadaWimulia 67 km-ze. aq yvelaze cnobili kurortia ostende.

turistebi cdiloben daaTvalieron flander­sis Su­asaukuneebis dedaqalaqi_ renti. belgiis pa­tara `vene­cias” warmoadgens qalaqi _ briuge, ro­melic danawevre­bulia arxebiT. maTze gadebulia ulamazesi xidebi. qa­laqSi Semonaxulia Suasauku­novani arqiteqturuli Zeg­lebi, XVI saukuneSi age­buli sacxovrebeli saxlebi, XVI_XVII saukuneebSi agebuli Zeglebi. flandersis yve­laze didi qala­qi aris antverpeni. igi aris almasis mWreli osta­tebisa da briliantebiT msoflio vaWrobis cent­ri. aq mdebareobs Zveli Senoba-nagebobebi. garda amisa, antverpeni aris msxvili samrewvelo centri. qa­laqi cnobilia modis centradac.

belgiis msgavsad, niderlandebic ko­nstituciu­ri mona­rqiis mqone qveyanaa. niderlandebis ganmasx­vavebel Taviseburebas warmo­adgens zRvis yvavile­bi. niderlandebis turistuli cen­tria ansterdami Tavisi mraval­ricxovani arxebiTa da xidebiT, tvi­rTbrunvis mixedviT msoflios umsx­vilesi porti _roterdami. qveynis dedaqalaqia uZvelesi qala­qi_ haaga. CrdiloeT holandia turistebis dasvenebis sayvareli adgilia. aq mdebareobs sxvadasxva pro­filis didi da patara kurortebi. holandiuri pei­zaJis ganu­yofeli nawilia qaris wisqvilebi. Kin­derdijk–is wylebSi mogzauroba SesaZleblobas iZ­leva turistebma daaTva­lieron XVIII saukunis Sua xanebSi agebuli, teqnologiiT ganaxlebuli 19 wisqvili.

sainteresoa qveynis sxva RirsSesaniSnaobac: ma­galiTad, turistebs SeuZliaT gaecnon holandiis Zvel arqiteqturul Sedevrs Ria cis qveS myof Ta­vise­bur ofenlaiTis mu­zeums. aq mcire teritoria­ze Tav­moyrilia mogrZo formis fermeruli saxle­bi da wisqvi­lebi. parkSi gaseirnebisas turists SeuZlia daaTvalie­ros rZis damamuSavebeli tra­diciuli hola­ndiuri fer­ma an holandielTa tra­diciuli pijakebis koleqcia. niderla­ndebSi Semo­naxulia mravali cixe-simagreebi da sasaxleebi. aq arsebobs 20-ze meti istoriuli qalaqi da sofeli. maT Soris aris delfti, lei­deni da hurni. amsterdamSi turistebis dainteresebis sferos Sea­dgens van-gogasa da rembrandtis istoriuli mu­zeumebi. msoflio mniSvneloba aqvs riksis muzeums, romelic moi­cavs cnobili ostatebis funjebiT Se­srulebul ferwe­rul nimuSebs. haagaSi mdebareobs qveynis mTavroba da parlamenti. aq ganTavsebulia saerTaSoriso organiza­ciebis warmomadgen­lobebi. qalaqSi mravlad moipoveba Zveli, istoriuli Zeg­lebi (mag, ise­Tebi, rogo­ricaa: bainen-hofis sasaxleTa kompleqsi, rembrandtis sura­Tebis ga­lerea da a. S.) Zvel sauniversi­teto qalaqad iTv­leba utrexti. didi raodenobis Zeg­lebis mqone qa­laqs warmoadgenda maastrixti.

 

luqsemburgis turistuli potenciali

luqsem­bur­gi warmoa­dgens did sahercogos. lu­qsemburgis sahercogo aris biznes-turizmis cent­ri. aq mdebareobs msxvili bankebi da mravali sa­erTaSoriso organizaciis Stab-bina. qa­laqi luqse­mburgi daarsda 963 wels. qveynis Tanamedro­ve saxe­lwodeba gamomdinareobs Zveli adgilobri­vi dia­leqtikuri sityvis_`lukli­nbur-huk”-isagan, rac qa­rTulad niSnavs `patara cixes”. qveynis dedaqalaqi Sedgeba ori nawi­lisagan_ zeda da qveda qalaqisa­gan. zeda qalaqSi mde­bareobs Zveli cixe-simagris naSTebi, agreTve hercogis sasaxle. es aris dedaqa­laqis biznes-centri, axali ub­nebis da samrewvelo obieqtebis raionebi. qalaqis far­glebSi mdebare­obs uzarmazari nageboba _ `adolfis xi­di”, uamra­vi istoriuli da kulturuli Zeglebi, didi her­cogis sasaxle, aRlumis moedani, RvTi­smSoblis saka­Tedro taZari, erovnuli biblioTeka da a. S.

adgilobrivi venaxebi mdebareobs moselis xeo­baSi. aq amzadeben cnobil Rvinoebs, liqiorebs, xi­lis wve­nebs. meRvineobis aRiarebul centrebs war­moadgenen qa­laqebi_Remigio da Grevenmacher. qalaqi _eS-sur-suri cnobili sakurorto centria. ehter­nahi_qveynis erT-erTi uZvelesi qalaqia. mas daax­loebiT 1000 wlis isto­ria aqvs. qveynis dedaqalaq­Tan erTad, ehternahi turiz­mis aRiarebuli cent­ria. ehternahis aRmosavleTiT iS­leba e. w. `luqsem­burgis Sveicaria”. aq sazRvarze Camo­yalibda ucna­uri mkveTr daboloebaTa mqone mwvervale­bi, Rrma tbebi da cicabo kldeebi. zemoT xeobebSi mrav­lad aris qvis lodebi.

Tema 4.

                                           

 

centraluri evropis turistuli potenciali

nawili 1.

centraluri evropas, ro­gorc avRniSneT, gane­kuTvneba alpu­ri (germa­nia, Sveicaria, avstria, li­xtenStei­ni, slove­nia) da viSegra­dis (polone­Ti, CexeTi, slovakeTi da ungreTi) qveynebi.

 

alpu­ri qveynebis turistuli RirsSesaniSnaobani

germaniis turistuli RirsSesaniSnaobebi

germania, saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTarebis Tva­lsazrisiT, Zalze xelsayreli qve­yanaa. germaniis turizmis centrs, msoflio masSta­biT, ga­a­Cnia 6 regionuli filiali (maT Soris 4 evropaSi) da 29 warmom­adge­nloba. gamorCeulia ge­rmaniis ekonomika­Si turizmis roli da mniSvnelo­ba. igi warmoadgens ev­ropaSi meore qveyanas kul­turuli turizmis mima­rTule­biT. germania msof­lio masStabiT lideria saerTaSori­so bazrobe­bi­sa da gamofenebis raodenobiT.[1]

germaniaSi turistuli moTxovna ganpirobebu­lia sa­qmiani mogzauro­be­biT, saganmanaTleblo da elitaruli turizmiT. saqmiani adamianebi ger­mania­Si Cadian sxvada­sxva mizniT. mravali qveynis mcire da saSualo mewar­meebi am qveyanaSi Camodian cnobi­li germanuli avtomobilebis: `op­elis”, `be-em-ve-s” da `audis” SeZenis mizniT. mWidro TanamSrom­loba aris damyarebuli germaniis da sazRva­rgareTis sa­xelmwifoTa metalurgiul kombinatebs So­ris, ro­melic dakavSirebulia germaniidan Tanamedrove me­talurgiuli danadgarebis miwodebas da specia­li­s­tebis gacvlasTan. germaniisaTvis perspeqtiu­lia sakong­reso-sagamofeno turizmis ganviTare­ba. igi aris erT-er­Ti umsxvilesi savaWro partniori mso­flios rogorc maRalganviTarebuli saxelmwifoe­bisaTvis, ise ganviTa­rebadi qveynebisT­visac. amitom germaniis qalaqebSi Cata­rebuli saerTaSoriso ga­mofenebi yovelTvis izidavs mravali qveynis biznesmenebsa da specialistebs.

`man germaniaSi miiRo saukeTeso ganaTleba” _ cno­bili poeturi fraza amtkicebs germaniis sagan­manaTleb­lo sivrcis prestiJs. aq swav­lobs bevri ucxo­eli studenti. mWidro TanamSromloba arse­bobs germa­niisa da sxva qveynebis universitetebs Soris. elitaru­li turizmi dakavSirebulia qvey­nis dasavleTiT mdeba­re prestiJuli kurortebis arsebobiT, mag., ise­TiT, rogoricaa baden-badeni. am tipis kurortze dasveneba moicavs Termuli wyliT mkurnalobas, rom­lis wyaroebic cnobilia jer ki­dev Zveli romis droi­dan. baden-badenis kazinoebi cnobilia sxvadasxva gasar­Tobi da azartuli Ta­maSebiT. XIX saukunis bolos es saTamaSo saxlebi qalaqis xelmZRvanelobas, saija­ro gadasaxadis sa­xiT, yovelwliurad uxdida 500 aTas mar­kas da am­denives xarjavda im adgilebis keTilmowyoba­ze. sadac seirnobda damsvenebeli sa­zogadoeba. mag., 1857 wels baden-badenis ka­zinoSi lev tolstoim waago mTeli Tavisi fuli _3000 franki. saTamaSo biz­nesis centrad aris cno­bili visbadenic. XIX saukunis Sua xanebSi visbade­ni cnobili gaxda kar­tis TamaSze orientirebuli kazinoebiT. mag., 1871 wels visba­denis kazinoSi TamaSobda rusi mwerali _ f. m. dostoevski.

germaniaSi Casuli turistebis interess iwvevs alpe­bSi dasveneba. aq mdebareobs cnobili kuror­ti_ gar­miS-partenkirheni. es aris bavariis alpebis erT-erTi umsxvilesi klimaturi kurorti, rome­lic cnobilia ge­rmaniis zamTris sportis cent­rad. jer kidev 1936 wels aq atarebdnen zamTris olimpiur TamaSebs. germaniaSi popularulia bava­riis tbaze dasveneba, reinisa da eli­beze samdina­ro kruizebi, gansakuTrebiT `mesame asakis” pirTa (pensionerTa) Soris. turistul meqad iTvleba ag­reTve germaniis administraciuli centrebic.

gansakuT­rebiT popularulia mgzavroba germa­niis dedaqalaq be­rlinSi, romlis centrSic imyo­feba aleq­sandras moeda­ni. es saxeli moedans ewo­da rusi im­peratoris_aleqsandra pirvelis sapati­vcemulod. aqve axlos tu­ristebi seirnoben qa­laq _ unTer-denlindenis centra­lur quCaze, romelic mTavrdeba branderbur­gis mosax­veviT. branderbur­gi erT dros iyo dasavleT- da aRmosav­leT ber­linis gamyofi. berlinis turistul Ri­rsSesaniSna­obas ganekuTvneba mravalricxovani muzeume­bi, zo­oparkebi, satelevizio anZebi. qalaqis simboloa daTvis qandakeba. berlinTan axlos mdebareobs 1945-ian wlebSi diqtatori xelisuflebis meTauris konferenci­ebis Ca­tarebis adgili. germaniaSi bevri sxva turistu­li Rir­sSesaniSnaobaa Tavmoyrili.

calke aRniSvnis Rirsia qalaqi drezdeni, ro­me­lic gaSenebu­lia mdi­nare elbas sanapiroze. dre­zdeni cnobilia Tavisi SesaniSnavi sasaxleTa kom­pleqsiT _cvinge­ris saxelwodebiT, romelic dako­m­pleqtebulia drez­denis suraTebis galereis Se­nobebiT. turistebis interess warmoadgens germani­is sxva qala­qebic. hamburgi sididiT germaniis meo­re qalaqia (ber­linis Semdeg). mas gaaCnia erT-erTi umsxvilesi sazRvao porti evropaSi. qalaqSi xide­bis didi (daaxloebiT 2400) raodenobaa. qalaqis Crdilo­e­TiT mdinare elbis sanapiroze mdebare Se­nobebs Soris Warbobs mra­val­ricxovani eklesiebi. qalaqs gaaCnia `gasarTobi kvartali” _ san-paulo, romelic cnobilia restornebiT, Ramis klubebiTa da kafe-barebiT. mdi­nare elbis CrdiloeTiT Seqm­nilia xelovnuri tba, sadac gaSenebulia aristok­ratiuli raioni. germaniis istoriul centrs war­moad­gens bre­meni. qalaqis istoriul da biznes-cen­trSi mde­bare administraciuli Senobebi warmoad­genen warsulis Semomnaxvel istoriul Zeglebs. magaliTad, aseTia: li­ubekisa da kilis Suasauku­novani sasaxleebi, romelic odiTganve cnobili iyo sazRvao-savaWro centrad.

Tanamedrove etapze kili aris gemTmSeneblobis saz­Rvao baza da umsxvilesi centri. kilSi regu­larulad tardeba savaWro gamofenebi. bevri turi­sti moemgzavre­ba kilSi, romelic jer kidev Cvens welTa aRricxvamde I saukuneSi cnobili iyo rein­ze gamaval saxmeleTo-sa­vaWro gzad. qalaqSi gaSe­nebulia elnis sasaxleTa kom­pleqsi _ msoflioSi cnobili egzotikuri arqiteqtu­ris Zeglebi. diuse­ldorfi warmoadgens msoflio masS­tabis samrewve­­-lo da savaWro gamofenebis organizebis adgils. es aris msxvili safinanso da sagareo-savaWro cen­tri. frankburgi cnobilia bankebis, sadazRvevo kom­paniebisa da saerTaSoriso organizaciebis daa­rsebis samSoblod. aq mdebareobs msxvili safondo da savalu­to birJebi. Stutgardi aris germaniis samxreT-dasavle­TiT mdebare qalaqi, romelic gar­Semortymulia tyeeb­iT. qalaqs ganumeorebel ier-saxes aZlevs parkebi, rom­le­bic erTmaneTisagan ga­moyofen qalaqis sxvadasxva mxares mdebare raio­nebs. qalaqSi mdebareobs mersedesi­sa da porSes muzeumebi, bavariis mefis rezidencia.

miunheni bavariis dedaqalaqia. es aris germani­is sa­mxreTiT mdebare federaluri miwa. qalaqi wa­rmoadgens msxvil sakurorto centrs. aq ganTavse­bulia mravalri­cxovani gamomcemlobebi da Teat­rebi. laibcigi aris aRmosavleT germaniaSi mdeba­re qalaqi. igi aris wignebis beWdvisa da qveynis musikaluri cxovrebis cen­tri. adgilobriv univer­sitetSi swavlobda goeTe. ger­maniis turistuli biznesis gegmaSi mkafiod ikveTeba be­vrad ufro ga­nviTarebuli dasavleTi da naklebad ganviTarebu­li aRmosavleT nawili.

 

Sveicariis turistuli resursebi

 

Sveicariis bunebriv-klimaturma pirobeb­ma gan­sazRvra am qveynis sa­xe­lwodeba, rogorc saxelmwi­fosi, `sadac arqtika mezoblobs tropikas­Tan”. al­pe­bis maRalmTiani zona ganapirobebs ekosistemis mkveTr cvlile­bas: SveicariaSi ganviTarebulia saerTaSoriso tu­rizmi, romelic dakav­Si­rebulia qveynis mimzidvel bunebasTan. Sveicaria Seucvlelia Tavisi sam­To-sa­Txilamuro kuro­rtebiT (verbe, cermatti, zas-fe, grin-denvaldi, da­vosi, kran-montana, sankt-morici); ulamazes (konstantas, Jene­vasa da ciur­ixis) tbeb­ze dasvenebiT; istoriuli Rirs­SesaniSnaobebis mqone msxvili qalaqebiT (Niderdorf-is fexiT saseir­no zona ciurixSi, Suasaukunovani darbaze­bi, Sad­revnebi, bernisSi mdebare Senoba-nagebobebi, SeRe­bili xidi lucerneSi da a. S. SveicariaSi mdebare­obs msoflioSi meriis yvelaze grZeli Senoba, 16,9 km. sigr­Zis saavtomobilo gvirabi gotardis uRel­texiliT. qve­yana­Si funqcionirebs mravalricxovani turistuli sar­kini­gzo marSrutebi: `myinvarwveris eqspresi”, (cermati­_­da­vo­si_sankt-morici), `oqros uReltexili” (ciurixi ­_ ­lu­cerni _montre_Jeneva); `palmuri eqspresi” (sankt­_­mo­ri­ci­_lugano).

qveyanaSi bevria saintereso qalaqi Sua sauku­neebis arqiteqturiT. magaliTad, Jenevis tbis napi­rze mdebare `macduri” lozana olimpiur Sejibre­baTa aRiarebuli centria. 1994 wels qalaqs mieniWa `olimpiis dedaqala­qis” tituli. Sveicaria warmoa­dgens meRvineobis centr­s. meRvineobis tradicias Rrma fesvebi aqvs Sveicari­aSi. mis Sesaxeb xalxSi `dadis” mravali sasacilo is­toria. mag., erT-erTi maTgani gveubneba, rom Sam­panuris (cqriala) Rvinis damaarsebeli samSoblos _ erT-erTi Sveicaruli soflis_`Sampanuris” 40-ma meve­naxem da meRvinem mi­marTes evropis uzenaes sasamarT­los TxovniT imis Taobaze, rom neba daerToT maT mier warmoebuli TeTri RvinisTvis daerqvaT saxeli `Chapag­ne”. Ta­vianT moTxovnas Sveicarelebi xsnid­nen imiT, rom maTi sofeli daarsda XIX saukunis bolos anu ma­namde, sanam safrangeTSi SeimuSavebdnen Sampanuris (cqriala) Rvinos damzadebis cnobil meTods.

Sveicaria cnobilia agreTve saganmanaTleblo tu­rizmiTac. musirebs mosazreba imis Taobaze, rom Sveica­riaSi swavla SeuZliaT mxolod mdidar ada­mianTa bavSvebs. sinamdvileSi saqme sxvagvaradaa. Sveicariis ke­rZo skola-pansionebisagan (romelSic bavSvebis saswav­leblad bevrs marTlac ar hyofnis fuli. kerZod, am tipis skolebSi ganaTlebis miRe­ba weliwadSi jdeba sa­Sualod 50 aTasi aSS. do­lari) gansxvavebiT, qveynis sa­xelmwifo universite­tTa umravlesobaSi iReben saSua­lod mxolod 500 Sveicarul franks erTi semestris ma­nZilze. mar­Talia am Tanxas unda daematos arsebobisaT­vis sa­Wiro xarjic, magram Sveicariis universitetebs ga­aCniaT sxva mravali RirsSesaniSnaobac: 1. swavlis msurvels codnis miReba SeuZlia Sveicariis nebis­mier samecniero dawesebulebaSi, riTac mas xeli miuwvdeba uaxles samecniero ideebTan; 2. yuradRe­bas imsaxurebs samecniero infrastruqturis xari­sxi. dainteresebul pirs, erT dRes moTxovnis wa­yenebis SemTxvevaSi, SeuaZ­lia momdevno dRes mii­Ros misTvis sasurveli wigni an samecniero Jurna­li Sveicariis nebismieri universite­tis biblioTe­kidan; 3. swavlis msurvels aq SeuZlia mi­iRos ga­naTlebis umaRlesi done, xolo mecnierebis `mana­Tobels’ man aq SeiZleba Sexvdes pirdapir derefa­nSi. Sveicariis yvelaze ufro prestiJul universi­tetebs wa­rmoadgens Jenevis, lozanis, bernisis, ci­urixis univer­sitetebi da teqnologiu­ri skolebi.

 

avstriis turistuli potenciali

 

avstria iTvleba samTo-saTxilamuro turizmis ganvi­Tarebis TvalsazrisiT, erT-erT yvelaze po­pularul qveynad. ucxoeli samTo-moTxilamureebi­saTvis yvelaze popularulia sami avstriuli mi­wis kurorti: tirolia, zals-burglandi da karin­tia. tirolis regioni, rome­lic mdebareobs arl­bergisa da kicbuhelis mTis masi­vebs Soris, iTv­leba yvelaze cnobil samTo-saTxilamu­ro kuror­tad. aq dasvenebis popularul adgils warmoad­gens maierxoferi. tirolis administraciuli cent­ridan_ insbruki­dan 60 km-is daSorebiT mdebareobs ori (1964 wlisa da 1976 wlis) olimpiadis Catare­bis adgili. kicbuheli, romelic mdebareobs incb­rukadan 50 km-is daSorebiT, samTo-moTxilamureebs Soris cnobilia ukve 80 wlis ganmavlobaSi. igi Sedis avstriis yvelaze elitaruli kurortebis ricxvSi. swored aq ianvarSi tardeba msof­lio Tasis Cempionati samTo-saTxilamuro sportSi, xo­lo zafxulobiT ki qalaqis sportul cxovrebaSi mniS­vnelovan movlenad iTvleba CogburTis saerTa­Soriso turniris yovelwliurad Catareba. samTo Txilamurebze sria­li popularulia zals-burgla­ndis miwebze. aq aris sa­mTo-saTxilamuro kurorte­bi zel-am-zii da kapruni.

belve­deri iTvleba ba­rokkos erT-erT ulamazes saxed mTel msoflioSi. ve­nis memorialur adgi­lad SeiZleba CaiTva­los qalaqis parki `prateri”, venis xelovnebis saxli, mrava­lricxovani muzeume­bi da didi kompozito­rebis (haid­nis, mocartis, be­Thovenis, bramsis, Strausis) cxov­rebisa da moRva­weobis adgilebi. turis­tebi gasaseirneb­lad irCe­ven venis tyes. qalaqSi bevria araCveulebrivi arqi­teqturuli Zeglebi. ase mag., grabenis quCa­ze dgas nacrisferi qvisagan gamoTlili rodosis muqi qan­dakeba_barokos sveti. igi aSenda 1682 wels epide­miisagan gadarCenis niSnad, romelmac Seiwi­ra 100 aTasze meti adamiani. venas SeiZleba ewodos musi­­kaluri sam­ya­ros dedaqalaqi. musikaluri ve­nis si­mbo­lo aris venis opera, sadac TebervalSi tarde­ba avst­riis cnobili mejlisi. aq mayu­rebe­lTa da­rba­zi da scena waa­gavs udides sacekvao moedans.

qalaqis centraluri nawili aris fexiT gamv­lelTa saseirno adgili. aq mravalricxovan arqi­teqturul Zeg­lebs Soris mdebareobs Tanamedrove stilis uaxlesi kafe-barebi da restornebi. vaWro­bis (Shoping) moy­varulebs SeuZliaT ewvion quCas _ Maria- Hilfer, sadac ga­nTavsebulia uamravi maRazia. vena iTvleba evropis yve­laze Zvir qalaqad. gansa­kuTrebiT maRali fasebi aqvs qalaqis centrSi mde­bare pirveli klasis sastumroebs. ase magaliTad, sastumros _ `All-Grand Hotel Wien»-is no­meri dRe-Ra­mis ganmavlobaSi sargeblobisaTvis Rirs 150-dan 300 evromde. ra Tqma unda, yvela turists surs ew­vios qalaq zalcburgs. is daarsda yofili `mari­lis sabadoebis” teritoriebze. zalcburgis popu­laroba, up­irveles yovlisa, dakavSirebulia moca­rtis saxelTan. qalaqSi eqskursiis dros turis­tebs SeuZliaT daaTva­lieron is saxli, sadac dai­bada mocarti. qalaqis erT-erTi simboloa XIX saukunis cixe.

 

nawili 2.

viSegra­dis qveynebis turistuli potenciali

poloneTis turistuli potenciali da misi gamoyenebis SesaZleblobebi

poloneTSi izidavs istoriis moyvarulebs mra­valri­cxovani arqiteq­tu­ruli ZeglebiT, mag., ise­TebiT, rogoricaa: samefo sasaxle varSavasa da krakovSi, po­loneTis magnatTa istoriuli cixe-si­magreebi. iunes­kos kulturul memkvidreobaTa nus­xaSi Sevida krako­vis, varSavis, torunis, (turiste­bisaTvis aranakleb mimzidveli) gdanskis, poznanis da sxva qala­qebis arqi­teqturul-kulturuli fase­uloba. poloneTis terito­riaze mdebare mTebSi ka­rpatebi da sudetebi daspecia­lizirebulia samTo-saT­xilamuro turebze, romelic gacilebiT ufro iafi jdeba, vidre igive saxeobisa da xarisxis avs­triasa da SveicariaSi. poloneTSi da­sasve­neb­lad moemgzavrebian mezobeli ge­rmaniis moqalaqeebi, romelTagan bevri polonur provinciebSi aw­yobs cxenosnobis turebs. poloneTis terito­riaze SeiZ­leba gamoyofili iqnes Semdegi saxis turistuli raio­ne­bi: pomerania, baltiis zRvis sanapiroebi, ka­Suba, varmia, ma­zuri, podlasie. lubusis miwa, didi poloneTisa da ku­iavis zRvispira regioni, sudeti da silezia, mcire po­loneTi da karpatebi, pomera­nia, baltiis zRvis sana­pi­ro da kaSuba _ es aris qveynis Crdilo-dasavleT na­wi­li, baltiis zRvis 500 km sigrZis sanapiroTi, zRvis mimdebare teri­toriis tbiT da e.w. `Sveicaruli kaSubiT”. aq mde­bareobs msxvili qalaqebi Secini da gdanski.

varSava aris poloneTis dedaqalaqi. igi umsx­vilesi qalaqia centralur evropaSi. es qalaqi ag­reTve aris umsxvilesi samrewvelo centri. 1918 wlidan. varSavaSi mdebareobs fasdaudebeli arqi­teqturuli Zeglebi, daa­xloebiT 30-mde Teatri, 50-mde muzeumi da suraTe­bis galerea. varSava Sedge­ba Zveli da axali qalaqisa­gan. Zveli qalaqi (Zve­li miasto) Setanilia iuneskos msoflio memkvid­reobis nusxaSi. igi aris qalaqis sim­bolo. Zveli qalaqis bazris moedani mTlianad aRdgeni­lia 1945 wlis II msoflio omSi dangrevis Semdeg. pirve­li masStaburi mSeneblobebi aq daiwyo jer kidev XVI_XVII saukuneebSi. Zveli qalaqis bevr maRazia­sa da restorans gaaCnia Tavisi tradiciebi. resto­rani (yofi­li Rvinis marani) `fukera” ukve moqme­debs 300 wlis ganmavlobaSi. igi iTvleba erT-erT saukeTeso restor­nad mTel qalaqSi. mas stumrob­dnen gamoCenili sazogado moR­vaweebi, magaliTad, rogoricaa: amerikis SeerTe­buli Statebis yofili saxelmwifo mdivani henri kisinjeri.

prezidentis sasaxlis siaxloves mdebareobs sastum­ro `bristoli”, romelic varSavis erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili sastumroa. igi aages 1899 wels. mZafri ko­nkurenciis miuxedavad, es sastum­ro dRe­mde iTvleba yvelaze komfortabelurad qalaqis farglebSi. qalaqis sxva mniSvnelovan RirsSesani­Snaobebs miekuTvneba kul­turis sasaxle da mecnie­rebis moedanze agebuli defi­lendis Senoba. igi simaRliT 234 metria, romelic age­bulia 1950-ian wlebSi. Teatralur moedanze aRmarTu­lia klasi­kur stilSi agebuli didi Teatris korpusi, rome­lic aSenda XIX saukunis I naxevarSi. mdinare vis­lis sanapiroze praRis sacxovrebel saxlSi funq­cioni­rebs XIX saukuneSi agebuli vistuals banki. am kvarta­lSi funqcionirebs bazari, sadac Tavis produ­qts sTavazobs ucxoeTis bevri komersanti.

dabali centraluri regionis udides nawils ikavebs sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebi. mazovia yvelaze ufro dasaxlebuli provinciaa poloneT­Si. TiTqmis xuTi mi­lioni adamiani modis yovelw­liurad varSavis dasaTvaliereblad. am regi­onis turistuli daniSnuleba, varSavis garda, SeiZleba miekuTvnos qalaq loZis, kelces, evropis erT-erT uZve­les mTis masivebs. mazo-viosa da qalaq lub­lins. polo­neTis samxreT-dasavleT nawili_sudeti da silezia _ odiTganve cnobilia, rogorc Zveli samrewvelo raioni, iseTi sabazo dargebiT, rogo­ricaa samTo-mompovebeli, metalurgiuli da safei­qro mrewveloba, magram ekonomikaSi mimdinare struqturuli Zvre­bi, sazogadoebrivi azris evo­lucia sul ufro aiZu­l­ebs xelisuflebas yurad­Reba gaamaxvilos am adgilebis rekreaciul SesaZ­leblobebze, romelic warmodgenilia sxvadasxvag­vari reliefiT, lamazi peizaJebiT, landSaftebiT, kul­turul-istoriuli Zeglebis siuxviT.

am regionis turi­stul Rirsebas SeiZleba gane­kuTvnos qalaqi opole, ka­rkonoSi, katovice, mlo­cvelTa centri_qalaqi Cehsto­xovi. sudetisa da si­leziis centralur qalaqs warmoa­dgens evropuli metropolia _vroclavi. evropuli mem­kvidreoba ig­rZnoba aTa­swlovani istoriis mqone qalaq qvemosi­leziaSi. sxva polonuri qalaqebis msgavsad, tipiu­ria am qalaqis dagegmarebac: qalaqis siZvele, cen­traluri moedani, bazari da darbazi. wm. ioanes sa­kaTedro taZari, romelic gamorCeulia Tavisi ori koSkiT, agebulia XIII­_XIV saukuneebSi. taZris Senoba iTvleba erT-erT yve­laze Zvel goTur ek­lesiad poloneTis teritoriaze. vroclavi warmo­adgens erT-erT umsxviles samecniero centrs po­loneTSi. adgilobriv universitetebSi ganaT­lebas iRebs daaxloebiT 80 aTasi studenti.

mcire poloneTi da karpati mdebareobs qveynis samx­reTiT. krakovis raioni da maRali tatrasi iT­vleba qve­ynis mniSvnelovan turistul centrad. be­skidi da beSa­di, romlebic mdebareoben regionis aRmosavleTiT, ax­losaa ukrainisa da slovakeTis sazRvrebTan. igi war­moadgens erT-erT mciredasax­lebul regions evropaSi da imavdroulad yvelaze sainteresoa bunebaSi dasvene­bis TvalsazrisiT. mcire poloneTSi mde­ba­reobs qalaqi krakovi.

 

CexeTis turistuli potenciali da misi gamoyeneba

 

CexeTi turistebs izidavT dedaqalaq praRis isto­riuli RirsSesaniSnaobani, mkurnaloba iseT Termul kurortebze, rogoricaa karlovis vari, marianske laz­ne da sxvebi. dauviwyar STabeWdile­bas tovebs turiste­bSi samxreT CexeTis qalaqebsa da cixe-simagreebSi mog­zauroba _ samxreT bohema Sua saukuneebis arqiteqturis gansacvifrebeli ma­galiTia gradec-kralove, kolini, pa­rdubice, tabo­ri, olo-mouci, Ceske-budejovice, Ceski-ku­rmlovi _ es aris maTi arasruli CamonaTvali. aqve aRsani­Snavia qalaqis Rirseba _ brno, CexeTis is­toriuli centri da saerTaSoriso savaWro bazrobebi.

turistebisaTvis udides interess warmoadgens Cexe­Tis dedaqalaqis _ praRis RirsSesaniSnaobaTa daTvali­ereba. mravali saukunis ganmavlobaSi igi ganacvifrebda turistebs Tavisi silamaziT. Tana­medrove praRis safu­Zvels warmoadgens ori Suasa­ukunovani cixe-simagre_viSegradi da gradCani. gra­dCanze mdebare yvelaze mniS­vnelovan Senobas war­moadgens praRis kremli. mdinare vltavaze gadaWi­mulia Carlzis lamazi xidi, romelic agebuli iq­na 1357 wels Carlz IV-is brZanebis Tanaxmad. Car­lzis xidiT iwyeba Zveli ubnis kvartali praRaSi (Zveli praRa) centraluri Zveli ubnis moedniT, rome­lic odesRac iyo qalaqis savaWro centri. Zveli ubnis moedanze mdebare yvelaze mniSvnelo­van istoriul Seno­baTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba XIV saukuneSi agebuli Zveli ubnis darbazi araCveule­brivad saintereso saaTiT, ro­mlis sanaxavad aq Ca­modis uamravi turisti. aqvea Suasaukuneebis ekle­sia ori koSkiTa da zariT. istoriuli saxlebiT gaSenebul gragnil qu­Cebs Zveli qalaqis moedni­dan turistebi gahyavT beTle­mis teritoriaze, sa­dac ganlagebulia samlocvelo, yve­laze cnobili sasuliero saswavlebeli, romlis magis­tri iyo Ce­xeTis erovnuli gmiri _ ian gusi. praRaSi muzeume­bis didi raodenobaa. praRis kidev erTi cnobili istoriuli kvartali aris axali moedani (praRis axali centri), sadac imyofe­ba ero­vnuli muzeumi da praRis yvelaze lamazi maRaziebi.

CexeTis respublika aris didi raodenobis Sua sau­kuneebis cixe-simagreTa qveyana. praRis siaxlo­ves mdeba­reobs karlSteinis cixe-simagre, romelic XIV saukune­Si aago mefe Sarl IV-m. cixis mSeneb­loba gagrZelda ramdenime wels. mefe xSirad Ca­modioda cixeSi dasasve­neblad. imisaTvis, rom uz­runveleyo TavisTvis srulyo­fili simSvide, Carl­zma gasca brZaneba imis Sesaxeb, rom cixeSi ar gae­bedaT Ramis gaTeva arc erT qals. Ce­xeTis respub­likaSi sakurorto-barneologiuri saqmia­noba dai­wyo jer kidev Soreul warsulSi. erT-erT aseT pirvel kurorts warmoadgens samefo karis kuror­ti. turistebisa­Tvis ukve didi xania cnobilia am regionis 80-mde cxeli, samkurnalo wyaroebi, mag­ram Tavad kurorti daarsda mxolod XIV sau­kunis dasawyisSi. karlovis varisa da kurortis daarse­bis Sesaxeb arsebobs ramdenime legenda.

am istoriebs Soris yvelaze gavrcelebul le­genda­Si kurortis uSualo damfuZneblad iTvleba Sarlz IV. legendaSi saubaria imis Sesaxeb, rom erTxel mefe Ta­visi amaliT uRran tyeSi midioda. monadireebi ZaRle­biT misdevdnen irems, romelic sirbilisas kldeze ga­daxta. ZaRlebic mihyvnen mas, magram moulodnelad erT-erTma maTganma gangmira­vad da sacodavad daiymui­la. ma­sTan mivardnilma monadireebma naxes, rom ZaR­li Ca­vardnila cxel wyaroSi. es moulodneli aRmoCena gax­da kurortis daarsebis mizezi. legendis Sesaxeb dRem­de gvaxse­nebs klde, sadac kurortis Tavze aRmar­Tulia ir­mis qandakeba, romelsac ewodeba `irmis naxtomi”.


1. futkaraZe r. germania saerTaSoriso turizmSi: Tanamed­rove mdgomareoba da perspeqtivebi. turizmi, eko­no­mika da bizne­si. gamomcemloba `uni­versali”, baTumi, 2010, gv. 124.

Tema 3.


msoflio turistuli resursebis geografia

nawili 1.

 

turistuli qveyanaTmcodneoba SedarebiT axa­li cnebaa, romlis aRmoceneba dakavSirebulia tu­ristu­li biznesis sferoSi dasa­qmebul muSakTa praqtikul moTxovnilebasTan. sxvadasxva qveyanaSi turizmis sferoSi moRvawe menejereb­ma da eqskur­siam­Z­R­olebma (gidebma) unda icodnen im qveynebisa da regionebis geografiuli nomen­k­latura da Ta­visebu­rebebi, romlis fargle­bSic isini muSaoben. maT co­d­naze pirdapir aris damokidebuli turis­tuli kompanie­bis komer­ciuli saqmianobis efeqtia­noba. Cveulebisamebr qveyanaTm­codneoba iTvle­ba ge­ografiuli mecnierebis ganu­yofel nawilad. ge­ografiuli mecnie­rebis for­mebs ganekuTvneba fi­zikuri da eko­nomikuri geogra­fia.

fizikuri geografia Seiswavlis iseT geogra­fiul komponen­tebs, ro­goricaa: hidrosfe­ro, atmo­sfero, re­l­iefi da a. S. ekonomikuri geo­gra­fia ki aris sawarmoo (buneb­rivi resursebis, mosaxleobis da sxva) ZalTa gan­Tavse­bis kanonzomie­re­bisa da principe­bis Semswavleli mecni­ereba. ar­sebobs re­gion­u­li ekonomikis mcnebac. re­gionalistikis erT-erTi fuZe­mdebeli a. e. pro­bsti Ta­vis droze wer­da: `ekonomiku­ri geog­ra­fiisa da regionuli ekono­mikis gamijvna SeiZ­leba moxdes ma­Ti Seswavlis ob­ieq­te­bis ga­mijvnis safuZvelze. maT Soris I Seis­wavlis raionebsa da qveynebs. regionuli ekonomi­ka ki warmoad­gens eko­nomikuri geogra­fiis nawils”.

turistuli qveyana­Tmcodneoba SeiZleba ganisa­zRv­ros ro­gorc geog­rafiuli mecnierebis siste­mis nawili, romelic qveyanas Sei­s­wavlis turizmi­saTvis misi mimzidve­lobis TvalsazrisiT. turis­tuli qveyanaTm­codne­oba axorcielebs Semdeg funq­ciebs: 1. ganmanaTle­bels _ qve­ynis `ga­na­Tlebis” Se­qmna, romelic auci­lebelia sazoga­doebis yvelaze farTo fe­nebisa da mTeli rigi (sarek­lamo, marke­tinguli da sxva) sa­wa­r­moebi­sa­T­vis; 2. informaci­uls _ bunebrivi piro­bebis, mosaxleobis, kultu­ris, qve­ynis ekonomikis, misi Taviseburebebisa da tipiu­ri maxasiaTeb­lebis Sesa­xeb monacemTa farTo krebulis gamoyenebis Se­saZleblobebis Segrovebas, Senaxvasa da wardgine­bas; 3. ganmaviTarebels _ saerTaSoriso da Si­dasa­xelmwifoebrivi kavSirebi da urTierTobebi, rome­lic gaxda tu­ristuli biz­nesis meSveobiT sxvada­sxva qveynis teritoriebis dapyrobis safuZve­li; mgzavrTmZ­Rolebis formire­ba da publikacia; kome­rciuli turiz­mis sferoSi moqmedi sawarmoebis da organizaciebis saqmianobis op­timi­za­cia; 4. saswav­los. qveyanaTmcodneo­bis Te­oriuli safuZvlebi ga­d­mocemu­li iyo cnobili ge­ografebis naSromebSi, romelTa ricxvs gane­ku­Tvne­b­ian j. n. baranski, i. m. ma­ergoizi, i. a. vitveri da sxvebi. rekreaciuli geog­rafiis ganviTarebaSi wvlili Seitana n. s. mironenkom.

 

turistuli kompleqsis rekreaciuli potenciali

 

Tanamedrove etapze turistuli qveyanaTmcodne­obis sfe­roSi jer kidev sakmaod mcire samuSaoebi aris Cata­rebuli. upirveles yovlisa, igi warmoad­gens sareklamo bukletebsa da qvey­nebis aRweras aucilebeli informaciis zusti sistema­tizaciis gare­Se. miT umetes, saerTaSoriso turizmis ganvi­Tarebis pi­ro­bebSi iseT sakiTxebze, rogoricaa mo­gzaurobis miz­niT qveynis aRwera, ar SeeZloT gve­rdi aevloT Tanamed­rove avtorebs. magaliTad, ase­Ti naSro­mi Seasrula e.a. akladnikovma. wignSi `sa­erTaSoriso turizmi da msof­lio turistuli re­sursebis geogra­fia” avtori kvlevis obieqtis sa­xiT gamoyofs `turistuli resur­sis” mcnebas, anu geografiul mona­ce­mebs (reliefs, klimats da a. S.) da infrastruqturas (sazogadoebas, mom­saxurebas, vaWrobas da a. S.), rac qve­yanas xdis popularuls.

Tanamedrove etapze evropa warmoadgens yvela­ze uf­ro popularul adgils dasvenebisaTvis. tu­ristebis um­ravlesoba swored aq moemgzav­re­ba. qve­ynebisa da regi­onebis turistuli potencialis Se­saxeb informaci­is sistematizireba turistebsa da menejerebs exmareba imis dadgenaSi Tu rogori re­kreaciuli mimzidveloba gaaC­niaT maT. skandinaviis regioni moicavs fineTs, SvedeTs, norvegias, danias da islandias. am qveynebs, TavianTi geog­ra­fiuli siaxlovisa da CrdiloeTiT ganlagebis gamo, gaaC­niaT sxva, mTeli rigi, saerTo maxasiaTebeli niS­nebi: msgavsi istoriuli ganviTareba, eko­nomikuri ga­nviTarebisa da keTildReobis maRali done da Sesabami­sad mosaxleobis mcire raodenoba.

saerTaSoriso turizms gaaCnia pirdapiri kav­Siri regionul ekono­mikasTan. msoflio turizmi SeiZleba ganxiluli iqnes regio­nu­li ganvi­Ta­rebis konteqs­tSi. turis­tebis mogzaurobis geografiuli marS­rutebis mixedviT, turistebis gamgzavn qvey­nebs Soris yvelaze Zlier poziciebze imyofebian ganviTa­rebu­li qvey­nebi, ro­mlebic TavianT mosax­leobas uz­ru­nvelyo­fen cxov­rebis maRali standa­rtebiT. maT ricxvs ganekuTv­neba ge­rmania, amerika, iaponia, didi bri­taneTi da safrangeTi. turiste­bis eqspo­rtiori qveyne­bis pir­ve­li xuTeuli qmnis msoflio turi­zmis `aminds”.

zogierTi eqspertis azriT, maTze modis turi­stebis msoflio eqsportis naxevarze meti. am qvey­nebis turiz­mis sferoSi SeimCneva, ekonomikis sxva dargebTan Seda­rebiT, ka­pi­ta­lis koncentraciis be­vrad ufro maRali done. aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZ­leba davaskvnaT, rom swo­red am qveynebs Soris turistebis mozidvisaTvis gamar­Tuli brZola ga­n­sa­zRvravs turistul bazar­ze konku­rencias. am qve­ynebSi ewyoba turistuli gamofenebi. turistuli moTxov­nis Tva­lsaz­risiT qveynebis aR­weris sqemis qveda­nayofebi SeiZleba iyos Semdegi: 1. quCebis, moednebisa da xalxis raodenoba; 2. qveynis ekonomikur-geografiuli mdgomareo­bis da­xasiaTeba _ es aris qveynis damokidebuleba garemo-pi­robebTan da istoriul-ekonomikur obieq­tebTan, magram gavlenas axdens mis ganviTarebaze. ase mag., espa­neTis zRvispira ganlagebam, mso­f­lio savaWro gzebTan misma siaxlovem, romlis meSveobi­Tac igi axor­ci­e­lebda Tavis kolo­ni­ebTan vaWro­bas, mniSvnelovnad imoqmedes qveynis meurneobis teritoriul struqturaze. espaneTis msxvili eko­nomikuri centrebis um­ravlesoba im­yofeba zRvis sanapiroze. am centrebidan bevri gadaiqca msxvil saerTa­Soriso kurortad, magaliTad barselona;

3. bunebrivi pirobebisa da resursebis daxasia­Teba. am ganyofi­lebaSi mizanmimarTulad xdeba qve­ynis buneb­riv-klimaturi Taviseburebebis daxasia­Teba, temperatu­ris ryevisa da landSaftebis tipe­bis gamoyofiT. sasar­geblo wiaRiseulis sabadoe­bis Sesaxeb informacia Se­iZleba xelsayreli aR­moCndes im saqmiani adamianebisaT­vis, romlebic da­kavebulni ari­an mineralur-sanedleu­lo resurse­bis mopovebiTa da vaWrobiT. aranak­leb mniSvnelo­vania erovnuli parkebis, adgilebis orTogra­fiul Tavi­seburebaTa Sesaxeb informaciis mopoveba, ro­melmac SeiZleba moizidon turistebi. magaliTad, espa­neTSi gamoyofen zRvispira obieqtebs, romle­bic moi­caven espaneTis rekreaciul potencials;

4. mosaxleobis daxasiaTeba. aq mniSvnelovania qvey­nis dasaxlebis is­toriisa da Sesabamisad, misT­vis dama­xasiaTebeli kulturis tipe­bis Sesa­xeb in­formaciis mo­poveba. mniSvnelovania movipovoT mo­nacemebi turis­tul centrTa geografiis Sesaxeb; 5. mokle istoriuli monaxazi. masSi mniSvnelo­vania movipovoT cno­bebi ZiriTadi istoriuli mov­lenebis, qveynis administraciul-teritoriuli da­nayo­febisa da saxelmwifo mow­yobis Sesaxeb; 6. qveynis meurneobis zogadi daxasiaTeba. cal­keuli gan­yo­fileba SeiZleba mieZRvnas qveynis eko­nomikis zo­gad daxasiaTebas, mis specializacias; 7. sakurorto zonebis Sesaxeb monacemebi, rome­lic mniS­vnelovania rogorc turistebisaTvis, ise menejere­bisaTvisac. sxvadasxva qveynebSi ganlage­bu­li raionebi mkveTrad gansxvavdebian erTmaneTi­sagan. es cno­bebi qve­ya­nam unda gaiTvaliswinos te­rito­riuli mowyobis dros; 8. turistuli formalobebis daxasiaTeba. masSi Se­dis: qveyanaSi qce­vis wesebi, savaluto da sabaJo regu­lirebis Taviseburebebi, sastumroTa tipebi, Sopingis Taviseburebebi da a. S.

turistuli formalobebis daxasiaTebis gegma­Si situaci­is Sesabamisad SeiZleba Setanili iqnes cvlilebe­bi, qveynis Sesaxeb ­cnobebis miRebis Sem­deg, rac mas aZlevs unika­lurobas. Tanamedrove etapze ya­libdeba axa­li turistu­li ma­rSruti _ samxreT-aRmosa­v­leT azi­is qveyne­bis mimarTu­lebiT. sazogadoebrivi ur­TierTo­bebis refor­mebma da sa­bazro ekonomikis dane­rg­vam xeli Seuwyo am qveyne­bSi samgzavro turizmis gan­viTare­bas, sadac xang­rZlivi ka­rCaketilobis Semdeg gaC­n­da msof­lio turizmSi maTi Ca­rTvis SesaZle­bloba. mosax­leo­bis saSualo fenis mzar­di Semosavlebi da dasvene­bis ga­daxdisunariani dro ga­rdaisaxeba saerTaSo­riso mogzaurobaSi. amrigad, swo­r­ed axalindust­ri­uli ekonomi­kis mqone qveynebs – sam­x­r­eT koreas, singa­purs, taivans, tailands, malaiziasa da indo­nezias Seu­Zli­aT SeinarCunon ekonomikuri zrda, romlis Sedegad yalibdeba saSualo fena.

turistebis mimReb qveynebs Soris wina planze gamo­dis amerika, es­paneTi, italia da safrangeTi. sul ufro izrdeba turistebis nakadi ganviTare­bad da gardamavali ekonomikis mqone qveynebSi, mag, iseTebSi, rogori­caa: Cine­Ti, TurqeTi, tailandi, malaizia da sxvebi.

nawili 2.

turistebis mogzaurobis geografiuli marSrutebi

 

ga­nviTare­buli qvey­nebi masSta­bur investiciebs abandeben ganviTa­rebadi qveynebis turis­tul infrastruqtu­raSi. ama­sTan er­Tad, mso­flio bankis monacemebiT, tu­rizmidan mi­Rebuli Semosav­le­bis daax­loebiT naxevari ganviTarebadi qveynebidan midis ganvi­Tare­bul­Si. ucxouri firme­bi dominireben bevri qveynis turiz­mis industria­Si. isini Cveulebisamebr agzavnian TavianT Semosav­lebs mSobel qve­yanaSi. am Semosavlebis umniSv­ne­lo nawils toveben turistebis mimReb qveyanaSi.

Tu ad­re maRalganviTarebuli qveynebi upirate­sad moixmardnen ganvi­Tarebadi qveynebis minera­lur-sanedle­ulo da iaf SromiT re­sursebs, ax­la isini gadavidnen am qveynebis turistuli resurse­bis `dapyrobaze”. turi­stuli industriis struq­tura warmovid­ginoT Sem­de­gi saxiT:

1. garTobis, turistuli operatorebisa da saa­gentoebis saqmianobis, transportis, saeqskur­sio RonisZiebaTa organizeba (turizmis indus­tria);

2. stumarTmaspinZlobis industria (Sed­ge­ba mo­msaxurebis, ganTavsebisa da kvebis industriisa­gan); 3. globaluri kompiuteruli qseli.

 

Tanamedrove msoflios turistuli regionalizacia

 

saerTaSoriso tu­rizmis ekonomika, ekonomi­kuri saq­mianobis sxva sferoTa msgavsad, geografiu­lia, ramac saSualeba mi­sca turizmis msoflio organi­zaci­as ewarmoebina specia­luri turistu­li darai­oneba. turizmis msoflio organizaciis mier Semo­Rebuli klasifika­ciis Tanaxmad, Tanamedrove mso­flio daraionebu­lia Semdeg turistul regione­bad: evropa, amerika, azia-wynari okeanis regioni, axlo aRmosav­le­Ti, sa­mxr­eT azia da afrika.

saerTa­Soriso turiz­mis sferoSi SeiniSneba msoflios eq­v­sive turis­tuli regionis ekonomiku­ri zrda. am ku­TxiT gan­sa­­kuTrebiT gaaqtiu­rebulia azia-wynari okeani­s da axlo aRmosavleTis regio­nebi. Tum­ca turistuli Semo­savlis mixedviT kvlav liderobs ev­ropa, romel­zec modis msoflio tu­ristuli Semosavle­bisa da mso­f­lio bazris naxe­varze meti (52%), amerikis re­gionze _ 20%, da azia-wynari okeanis re­gionze_20%, xolo afrikis da ax­lo aRmosav­leTis regionebze ki­ Sesabamisad_3-3%.

saer­TaSoriso tu­rizmis sferoSi msoflios eq­v­sive turistuli reg­i­onis eko­nomikuri zrda gan­pirobebulia imiT, rom amaRlda gansaku­Tre­bu­li movlenebis mniSvne­loba _ sportis, kulturis da gamofenebis saxiT. ma­Ti eqstraordinaluri Tavise­burebebis kuTxiT, unda mivi­zidoT mnaxve­lebi da gansakuTrebuli pativi mivagoT organizator qvey­nebs, metad mni­Svnelovan turistul distanciebs. amis naTel dadasturebas warmoadgens zam­Tris olimpiuri TamaSebi kanadaSi, gamofena eqspo San­xaiSi CineTSi, samxreT afrikaSi Catarebuli msof­-lio Cempionati fexburTSi fifa-s mier da TamaSe­bi indoeTis Tanamegobrobis qveynebSi da a. S.

turizmis msoflio organizaciis mier dayo­fil turistul regionebs Soris pirvel adgilzea ev­ropis turistuli regioni, romelic, Tavis mxriv, Sedgeba xuTi turistuli subregionisagan. esenia: 1. centraluri evropa, romelSic Sedis germania, Sveicaria, lixtenSteini, avstria, slove­nia, pol­oneTi, CexeTi, slovakeTi da ungreTi. 2. dasavleT evropa, romelSic Sedis safrange­Ti, bel­gia, ni­derlandebi, luqsemburgi, didi bri­taneTi da ir­landia. 3. samxreT evropa, romelSic Sedis espane­Ti, portugalia, andora, gib­raltari, ita­lia, san-marino, vatikani, rumineTi, bulgareTi, saberZ­neTi, albaneTi, makedonia, serbeTi, bosnia-hercego­vina, xorvatia, montenegro, kosovo, monako, mal­ta da kviprosi. 4. CrdiloeT evropa, romelSic Se­dis norvegia, Svecia, fi­ne­Ti, dania, islandia; li­tva, latvia da estoneTi. 5. aRmosavleT evropa, ro­melSic Sedis ruseTi belorusia, ukraina, moldo­va, yazaxeTi (nawilob­riv). aRmosavleT evropas mia­kuTvneben agreTve sam­xreT kavkasiis qveynebs: saqa­rTvelos, somxeTsa da azerbaijans, Tumca isini geo­grafiulad mdebareo­ben aziaSi.

turizmis msoflio organizaciis mier dajgu­febul turistul regionTa Soris, turistebis mo­zidvis masStabis mixedviT, meore adgilzea ameri­kis turistuli regioni, romelic warmodgenilia laTinuri amerikis saxiT. igi mdebareobs dedami­wis dasavleT naxevars­feroSi, gadaWimulia aSS-s samxreT sazRvridan antarq­tikamde. mas samxreT­iT esazRvreba samxreTis oke­a­ne, aRmosavleTiT_at­la­ntis okeane, Crdiloe­TiT_aSS, dasavle­TiT_wynari okeane. laTinuri ameri­kis teritoria 21 mln kv. km-ia, rac aris mTeli de­damiwis 8,3% (xmele­Tis 15%). teritoriis udidesi nawili did sameulze _ bra­ziliaze, meq­sikasa da argentinaze modis. aq cxov­robs msof­lio mosaxleobis 13,5% (900 mln kaci). Tanamedrove etap­ze es regioni gamoirCeva kultu­ruli, politi­kuri da ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT. laTinur ame­rikaSi 34 suverenuli saxelmwifo da 15 koloniaa, romelTa umravlesoba patar-patara kunZule­bia. is­ini mdebareoben karibis zRvis zona­Si. koloniebis udides nawils flobs espaneTi, romelsac konku­rencias uwevs mxolod portuga­lia. maTTan Seda­rebiT mcire samflobeloebi gaaC­niaT safrangeTs, gaerTianebul samefos, holandi­as, SvedeTsa da da­nias. Tanamedrove etapze yvela­ze meti kolonia ga­erTianebul samefos aqvs, Tum­ca, farTobis mixed­viT, safrangeTi liderobs.

laTinuri amerika, Tavis mxriv, Sedgeba Crdi­loeT amerikis, centraluri amerikis, samxreT ame­rikisa da karibis qveynebisagan. 1. CrdiloeT ameri­kis kontinenti mdebareobs dedamiwis CrdiloeT da dasavleT naxevarsferoSi. CrdiloeT amerikas ro­gorc amerikis nawils, saxeli daerqva amerigo ves­puCis pativsacemad. is pirveli evropeli iyo, vinc amtki­cebda, rom amerika aRmosavleT indoeTis na­wili ki ar iyo, aramed igi warmoadgenda manamade evropelTaTvis ucnob axal samyaros. CrdiloeT amerikaSi Se­dis sa­mi damoukidebeli saxelmwifo _ aSS, kana­da, meqsi­ka da ori daqvemdebarebuli qveya­na _ gre­nla­ndia da dominika; 2. centraluri ameri­ka Sed­geba Svi­di da­mou­kidebeli saxelmwifosagan. esenia: pana­ma, kos­ta-rika., gvate­mala, belizi, nika­ragua, sal­va­dori da hindurasi; 3. samxreT amerika mdeba­re­obs deda­miwis dasavleT naxevarsferosa da Zi­ri­Tadad samx­reT naxevarsferoSi. mas samxreTiT da dasavleTiT esa­zRvreba wynari okeane, Crdilo­e­TiT da aRmosav­le­TiT_atlantis okeane. samxreT amerikis mosax­l­eoba 371 mln adamiania, misi far­Tobia 17,84 mln kv. km. samxreT amerika farTobiT meoTxea aziis, afri­kisa da CrdiloeT amerikis Se­mdeg, xolo mosaxle­obis mixedviT ki, igi me­xuTe adgilzea aziis, afri­kis, evropisa da CrdiloeT amerikis Semdeg. samx­reT am­erikas ekuTvnis mravali kunZuli. maT Soris qar­zurga kunZulebi, da kunZu­li trinidadi, fol­kle­ndis kunZulebi, cecxlova­ni miwis arqipelagi, ga­lapagosis, Ciles, samxre­TiT da dasavleTiT mde­bare kunZulebi da sxva. sa­mxreT amerikis napirebi sustad aris danawevrebu­li. mxolod samxreT- da­savleTi nawilia fiorde­biT SeWril-SemoWrili. kerZod, xmeleTSi Rrmad aris SeWrili guaiakilis da venesuelis yureebi, marakaibos tba, da rio-de-la-platis yure. wynari okeanisa da atlantis oke­anis sanapiroebi umTavre­sad sworxazovania. Ria, namglisferi yureebi dama­xasiaTebelia pataginiis sanapirosaTvis. samxreT amerikas ganekuTvneba Sem­degi qveynebi: venesuela, ek­vadori, peru, Cile, pa­ragvai, argentina, urugvai, kolumbia, gaiana, suri­nami, brazilia, bolivia, sa­frangeTis gviana, fol­klendis kunZulebi; 4. kari­bis teritoriebs ganeku­Tvneba Semdegi qvey­nebi: ba­hamis kunZulebi, kuba, dominikelTa respub­lika, iamaika, barbuda, haiti, virjiniis kuZulebi, barba­dosi, sent-kristefori, nevisi, antigua sent-lusia, sent-vinsenti, grenadi­nebi, grenada, trinidadi, to­bago, puerto-riko, aruba, niderlandebis antilebi, sen-martini, angi­lia, gvadelupa da martinika.

turizmis msoflio organizaciis mier dayo­fil turistul regionebs Soris, turistebis mo­zidvis masStabis mixedviT, mesame adgilze aris azia-wyna­ri okeanis turistuli regioni. igi moi­cavs Semdeg qveynebs: iaponia, kviprosi, CineTi, mon­RoleTi, tai­vani, samxreT korea, TurqmeneTi, taji­keTi, uzbeke­Ti, yazaxeTi, yirgizeTi, avstralia, ax­ali zelan­dia, axali kaledonia, solomonis kunZu­lebi, vanu­atu, aRmosavleT tomori, bahreini, kata­ri, omani, CrdiloeT korea, avRaneTi, gvatemala, ekvadori, palau, panama, taivani da filipinebi. turizmis msoflio organizaciis mier dayo­fil turistul regionebs Soris erT-erTi aris axlo aRmosavleTis turistuli regioni. masSi Sedis: arabTa gaerTianebuli saamiroebi, Turqe­Ti, iorda­nia, israeli, libani, arabeTi, er­ayi, pales­tina, iemeni, irani, siria, quveiTi da Razis seqtori.

turizmis msoflio organizaciis mier dayofil turistul regionebs Soris erT-erTi aris sam­x­reT aziis turistuli regioni, romelic moicavs indostanis naxevarkunZulsa da mimdebare kunZu­lebs, indogangis vels da mis mTian zols. sam­x­reT aziis farTobi daaxloebiT 5,1 mln kv. km-ia. aq gavrcelebulia tropikuli tyeebi, savanebi, dasav­leT nawilSi_ udabnoebi. samxreT aziis terito­ri­aze ganlagebulia saxelmwifoebi: bangladeSi, in­doeTi, maldivis kunZulebi, Sri-lanka. kamboja, bi­rma (mianmari), tailandi, vietnami, malaizia, bru­nei, indonezia, filipinebi, bhutani, nepali, pakis­tani, laosi, singapuri da dasavleT timori.

turizmis msoflio organizaciis mier dayofil turistul regionebs Soris erT-erTi aris afri­kis turistuli regioni. afrika dedamiwis erT-er­Ti kontinentia, romlis farTobic mimdebare kun­Zulebianad Seadgens 30,2 mln kv. km-s, xolo mosax­leoba_ 900 mln kacs (dedamiwis mosaxleobis 14%). kontinentebs Soris igi am maCvenebliT CamorCeba mxo­lod evrazias. mas uWiravs dedamiwis zedapiris 6%, xolo xmeleTis 20,4%. afrika, gansakuTrebiT aRmosavleT afrika, mecnierebis mier adamianis wa­rmoSobis adgilad iTvleba, rasac adasturebs ad­reul hominidTa aRmoCena da aseve gviandeli (7 mln wlis win daTariRebuli) adamianis winaparTa dasaxlebebi, romelTa Soris pirveli adamianebi 200 000 wlis win gamoCndnen. afrika iWimeba ekvato­ris orive mxares. igi mraval klimatur sartyels moicavs. es erTaderTi kontinentia, romelic swvd­e­ba CrdiloeTisa da samxreTis zomier sarty­lebs. afrikis regioni xuT qveregionad iyofa. esenia: CrdiloeT afrika, dasav­leT afrika, cen­traluri afrika, aRmosavleT afrika, da samxreT afrika.

1. CrdiloeT afrika mdebareobs afrikis konti­nentis yvelaze farTo nawilSi. geopolitikurad gaeros Tanaxmad, masSi Sedian: egvipte, maro­ko, al­Ji­ri, libia, mavritania, sudani, tunisi da sapara. 2. dasavleT afrika mdebareobs afrikis konti­nentis dasavleT nawil­Si. igi moicavs 5 mln kv. km-s. mis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis: urkina-faso, gam­bia, mali, nigeria, senegali, benini, kot-divuari, gana, gvinea, mavritia da togo. 3. centraluri afrika mdebareobs afrikis kon­tinentis centralur nawilSi. mis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis: angola, gaboni, kameruni, kongos demokrati­uli respublika, kongos respublika, centraluri afrikis respublika da gvinea. 4. aRmosavleT afrika mdebareobs afrikis kon­tinentis ukidures aRmosavleTSi. masSi Sedis: tan­zania, uganda, mozambiki, zambia, zimbabve, komoris kunZulebi, mavriki, seiSelis kunZulebi, kenia, eTi­opia, somali, ruanda, madagaskari, malavi, sudani. 5. samxreT afrika mdebareobs afrikis konti­nentis samxreTiT. igi aer­Tianebs rogorc kontine­ntis ramdenime qveyanas ise kunZu­lovan saxelmwi­foebsac, romlebic afrikis nawi­lad ganixileba. esenia: samxreT afrikis respublika svazilendi. bostvana, lesoTo, namibia, iemeni da maiota.

Tema 2.


saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTarebis istoria, Tanamedrove mdgomareoba da perspeqtivebi

turizmis industriis proce­si da monawileTa urTi­e­rTobis primitiuli sawyisebi jer kidev Sua sau­ku­neeb­Si arsebobda. igi agreTve iTvaliswinebda evro­pis qvey­nebidan wminda adgilebSi religiuri aRmsareblobis ritualebis Catarebis mizniT gamg­zavrebis organizebas. imisaTvis, rom vinme sazRva­rgareTis eklesia-monastreb­Si salocavad gamg­za­vrebuliyo, aucilebeli iyo Suama­vlis meSveobiT gamo­e­T­xova neba­rTva romis papisgan, Se­mdeg miemar­Ta speci­a­lizebuli organizaciisaTvis, ro­melic arCevda, ako­mpleqtebda mlocvelTa jgufebs, uz­runvel­yofda maT gamgzavrebiT, ganTavsebiT, kve­biT, dacviTa da sxva aucilebeli atributebiT. yo­vel mlo­cvels Sehqonda mo­gzaurobisaTvis auci­lebeli da sak­marisi Tanxa. rac aTavisuflebda mas mogzaurobaSi fu­lis didi Ta­n­xis tarebisagan. amdenad, turistuli saq­mia­nobis yvela elementi, dafinanse­bis CaTvliT, adrec ar­sebobda da cota­Ti Tu gan­sx­va­­v­­debo­da mogzaurobis ga­formebis dRevandeli meTodebisagan.

 

nawili 1.

saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTarebis istoria

Tavdapir­ve­lad turistul mog­za­urobas SemTx­veviTi, qaosuri da ar­aregularuli xasiaTi hqon­da. Semdeg­Si man miiRo ufro organizebuli saxe. gamoikveTa turis­tuli naka­debis mi­marTulebebi da masStabebi. TavianTi bunebrivi RirsSesaniSnaobebi­sa da SeZenili turistuli upirate­sobebis xarjze zogierTi qveyana gadaiqca tu­ristebis mimReb imig­rant qveynad, zogic ki – turis­tebis gamg­zavn do­nor saxelmwifod. Tumca, Tanamedrove etapze, inve­s­ti­ci­ebis denadobis msgavsad, arcerTi qve­yana ar aris tu­ristebis arc wmina eqsportiori da arc wminda impor­tiori. erTidaigive qveyana erTd­ro­u­lad SeiZleba awar­moebdes turistebis ro­gorc mi­-Rebas, ise maT ga­g­zavnas, oRond gansxvavebulia ma­Ti imigra­ci­isa da emi­g­raciis masStabebi. ufro me­tic erTidaigive tu­risti erT se­zo­nze SeiZleba Semovides mocemul qve­ya­naSi dasasveneblad da ima­ve se­zonze am qveynidan gadavides sxva, mesame qveyanaSi.

Tavdapirvelad turistebis gamgzavreba xdebo­da re­gionis SigniT, mosazRvre qveynebSi, Semdeg am procesma miiRo ufro globaluri saxe. turisteb­ma daiwyes inte­nsiuri moZraoba aramarto sxva re­gionebSi, aramed sxva kontinentebSi ganlagebul qveynebSic ki. am SemTxvevaSi motivi saerToa: turi­stebs surT daik­ma­yofilon siax­leebis Ziebis, aR­moCenisa da daTvalierebisadmi arsebu­li, TavianTi turistuli moT­xovnilebebi. amitom turi­stebi ga­samgzavreblad eZeben TavianTi mSo­beli qveyne­bis bunebriv pirobebTan Sedare­biT gansxvavebuli tu­ri­stuli RirsSesaniSnaobebis mqo­ne qveynebs. aseTi saxel­mwifoebi ki mdebareobs gansxvavebuli buneb­riv-klima­turi pirobebis mqone sxva regio­ne­b­Si.

turistuli marSrutebis gamartivebis mizniT Camo­yalibda turistu­li kompaniebi, romlebic or­ganizebas uweven turistebis dasvenebas, qmnian spe­cialur turi­s­tul paketebs. am tipis turistul produqtebs, maT gan­xorcielebaze gaweuli danaxa­rjebis mixedviT, gaaCniaT sruliad gansxvavebuli fasebi. turistuli produqciis fasi damokidebu­lia ima­ze, Tu ra dakveTas iZleva tu­risti Tu tu­ristuli jgufi Tavisi turis­tuli paketis Sedge­nis dros. Tavdapirvelad turistul mgzavrobas ubralo, dasvebiTi an gasarTobi xasiaTi hqonda. Semde­gSi man ufro Sinaarsobrivi saxe miiRo. sul ufro wina planze wamoiwia organizebulma tureb­ma. turistebi ara ubralod isvenebdnen ucxo qvey­nebSi, aramed parale­lur reJimSi awyobdnen sxva­da­sxva saxis forumebs, kon­ferenciebs da a. S. yo­velive es zrdida turis­tebis mgzavrobis dros daxarjuli yoveli do­laris Rirebulebas.

Tu adre turistuli procesebi sezonur xasi­aTs atarebda, mogvia­nebiT igi mTeli wlis ganmav­lobaSi ga­moTanabrda. amis mizezi iyo is, rom tu­ristul sezonze mimReb qveynebSi tur-produqciis fasebi, binis qi­rebi da momsaxurebis sxva saxeebi bevrad ufro Zviri iyo, vidre arasezo­nur period­Si. amitom erTsadaimave tur-produq­tze we­liwadis sxvadasxva dros qveyanaSi dawesebulma gansxvave­bulma fasebma gamoiwvia turistu­li na­kadebis ga­moTanabreba arasezonur periodSic, mTeli wlis gan­mavlobaSi. Tavdapirvelad turistul procese­bSi erTve­boda mosaxle­o­bis mxolod mcire nawili (mdi­dari fe­-na), mo­g­vianebiT TandaTanobiT SesamC­nevi gaxda sa­Sualo da Se­darebiT Raribi fenebis gamgzavrebis te­ndenciac regi­o­nis mosazRvre, Se­darebiT Rarib qveyneb­Si, sadac turi­s­tul produq­ciaze fa­sebi ufro daba­lia, vidre mSobel qveya­naSi damzadebul saqonelze.

saerTaSoriso turizmis Semdgomi istoriuli ganvi­Tareba dakavSireb­u­lia kapitalis aRmoceneba­sTan, manqa­nuri indus­triis ganvi­Ta­rebasTan, fu­lad-sasaqonlo ga­cvlisa da sasaqonlo kapitalis srul­yofasTan. turis­tebi sazRvargareT fulis dasaxarjavad iyenebdnen mso­flio­Si aRiarebul va­lu­tas. Tavdapir­ve­lad aseTi sak­vanZo valutis rols as­ru­lebda inglisu­ri girvanqa sterlingi, romelsac Semdeg gamouCnda axa­li konku­re­n­ti do­laris saxiT. bolo dros wam­yvani valutis rol­ze mniSvnelovan pretenzias acxadebs evro.

msoflio turistul bazarze dasvenebis mimarT mo­Txovna gan­sa­kuTrebiT gaizarda kapitalizmis aRmocene­bis Se­mdeg evropaSi, rac ganapiroba turi­zmSi perso­nalis Sro­mis nayofierebisa da Sesaba­misad datvirTvis in­tensiu­robis mkveTrma amaRle­bam. mwarmoebluri teqni­kis da­ne­rgvam mniSvnelov­nad Seamcira organizaciaSi dasaqmebulTa, da Se­-sa­ba­mi­sad dasvenebisTvis finansuri resursebis ga­moyofis unaris mqone tu­ri­s­tebis ra­o­de­noba. XVIII saukunis Sua periodSi saerTaSoriso turi­z­­m­is ga­nviTarebaSi siaxleebi dainerga. Se­samCnevi gaxda msof­lio turiz­mis ekonomikuri fu­nq­ciis ganviTa­reba. adamiane­bis im fenebs, romle­bic sxva­dasxva miznebiT mogzaurobdnen ucxo qvey­nebSi, XVIII sau­kunis miwuru­li­dan turistebs uwodebdnen. XVIII sauku­nis bolos ukve SeimCneoda saerTa­So­ri­so tu­­­­rizmis pub­likaciuri xasia­Tis ganviTa­reba. saer­Ta­-Soriso turizmis Semdgomi aRmav­loba moiTxovda ga­rkveuli winapirobebis dac­vas. ker­Zod: 1. gancxadeba un­da daweriliyo turistuli vi­zis asaRebad; 2. ganc­xa­de­baSi unda miTi­Tebuliyo turistuli marSrutis zusti vadebi.

XIX _ XX saukuneTa mijna­ze mrewvelobiT gan­viTa­rebul qveynebSi SeimCneoda tu­ristuli bizne­sis orga­nizaciul-teqnikuri donis amaR­leba. kapi­­talizmis gan­viTarebasTan erTad xorcieldeboda dargobrivi cvli­lebani turistul biznesSi. sasa­qonlo vaWrobas Tanda­Tan cvlida tur-produqciis gayid­va. saerTaSo­riso tu­rizmis ganviTarebis kla­sifikacia mo­xda istoriuli (sawyisi, zrdisa da Tanamedrove) etapebis mixedviT.

 

saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTarebis Tanamedrove tendenciebi

 

Tanamedrove turizmis sawyisi faza emTxveva XIX sa­ukunes. misTvis damaxasiaTebelia: 1. sainfor­macio teq­nologiebis da gansakuTrebiT sa­f­osto qselis ganviTa­reba; 2. satransporto infrastruq­turis ganviTareba da axali, iseTi satransporto saSualebebis SemoReba, ro­goricaa rki­ni­gza da ge­mi, ramac gamoiwvia mgzavrTa gadayvanis siCqaris gazrda da mgzavrobis Rirebu­lebis Semcireba; 3. indu­strializaciis Sedegad keTildReobis zrda da Tavisufali dro­iT, ga­vrcelebu­li iyo evropaSi, kerZod, germaniasa da italiaSi.

Tanamedrove saerTaSoriso turizmi, sainfor­macio da kompiute­ru­li teqnolo­gie­bis farTod danergvis sa­fuZvelze, swrafi ganviTarebis fazaSi Sevida. progre­su­li sa­transporto saSualebebisa da momsaxurebis meS­veobiT igi Zalze swrafad rea­girebs msoflio ekonomi­kaSi mimdinare movlenebze. msoflio turizmis globa­liza­ci­is xarjze gaCnda axali tendenciebi da mimarTu­lebani. msoflio tu­rizmis ganviTareba sasargebloa ma­sSi mo­nawile yve­la mxarisaTvis. msoflio turizmis ganviTare­bis bumma gamoiwvia turizmis da ma­sTan dakavSi­re­bu­li dargebis – transportis, soflis meurne­obis, mecni­erebis, kulturis da ganaTlebis ganviTareba.

Tanamedrove etapze turistuli pakete­biT sar­geblo­ba SeuZlia yvela turistul jgufs im qvey­nebSi, sadac sakmaod maRal donezea ganviTarebu­li Sesabamisi turi­stuli infrastruqtura. calke­uli qveyana xasiaTdeba specifikuri turistu­li TvisebebiT, ris gamoc turis­tebs uZneldebaT dasa­s­veneblad qveynis arCeva. amitom momavali wlisaT­vis isini da­sasveneblad irCeven im qve­yanas, sadac isvenebdnen wina wels. amas ramdenime mize­zi gaaC­nia: 1. turistebi eCve­vian mimRebi qve­ynis moqalaqe­Ta tradiciebs; 2. isini egu­e­bian maT stumarT-mas­pinZ­lobis wess; 3. maspinZel ojaxTan uyalibdebaT megobru­li urTierToba da a. S. Tumca axal sezon­ze igive qve­yanaSi turistuli marSrutis SenarCu­nebas garkve­u­li na­klovanebac axasiaTebs. kerZod, mosawyeni xdeba, ukve na­naxi, igive RirsSesaniSnao­bebis, gasarTobi parkebis da skverebis monaxuleba.

ukanasknel aTwleulSi turizmis ganviTarebis sfe­roSi gamoikveTa saerTa­Soriso masStabis Sem­degi saxis tendenciebi: 1. turistul produqciaze moT­xovnis swra­fi zrdis perspeqtivebi; 2. turis­tuli in­du­striis cal­keul dargTa winmswrebi te­mpiT ganviTareba; 3. yoveli qveynis socialur-eko­nomikur ganvi­TarebaSi turizmis rolis zrdis ni­Snebi; 4. turizmis geo­g­ra­fiuli struqtu­ris cvalebadi xasiaTi.

msoflio turizmSi ikveTeba iseTi umniSvnelo­vanesi tendencia, rogoricaa turistTa gan­Tavsebis adgilebis zrda, dasavleTis turistul baza­rze jgufuri tur-produqciiT sargebloben, rogorc we­si, axalgazrda, ma­rtoxela adamianebi, SezRudu­li fi­nansuri SesaZleb­lobebis mqone turistebi, pensionerebi da mlocve­le­bi, romelTac sTavazo­ben TviTmomsa­xu­rebis formebs. amas­Tan erTad, un­da aRi­niSnos isic, rom turizmi mogzau­robaTa na­irsaxeobacaa, ro­melic Tanamedrove msofli­os gan­viTarebad da ganvi­Ta­rebul qveynebSi swrafad, mag­ram araTanabrad viTar­de­ba. misi warmoSoba dakav­Si­re­bulia sazogadoebis ganvi­TarebasTan, ramdena­dac igi ganisazRvreba xalxis moTxovnilebebiT.

Tanamedrove etapze ganviTarebadi qveynebic aq­tiu­rad arian CarTu­li saerTaSoriso turizmSi da sak­ma­od did Semo­savals iReben am sferodan. turi­zmi mso­flios 49 naklebad ganviTarebul qveya­naSi gadaiqca savaluto Semosavlebis miRebis ZiriTad wyarod. amitom ekonomi­kis es da­rgi warmoadgens am qvey­nebis mTliani Sida produqciis ZiriTad Semad­ge­nel na­wils. ganviTa­reba­di qvey­nebisaTvis turis­tuli produq­ti warmoadgens Zi­ri­Tad saeqsporto saqonels. turiz­mis eqsporti (turiste­bis Semoyva­na qveyanaSi anu turis­tuli momsa­xurebis ga­yid­va ucxoelebze) xels uwyobs Sida bazris gafarToe­bas, ris gamoc turizms, sxva dargebTan Sedare­biT, ufro did mniSvnelo­bas aniWeben es qveynebi.

zogadad ganviTarebad qveynebSi, maRalganviTa­rebul qveynebTan Se­darebiT, turizmis ganviTare­bis ufro ma­Rali tempebia dafiqsirebuli, radga­nac ganviTarebad (maT So­ris gardamavali ekonomi­kis mqone) qve­y­nebs gan­viTarebul qveynebTan mimar­TebaSi myarad aqvT SenarCu­nebuli turistuli ur­Tier­Tobebis dadebiTi saldo. ukanaskneli aTwle­ulis ganmavlobaSi msoflio turiz­mis ganviTare­bis tempebi ramdenjerme aRemateboda eko­no­mi­kis sxva dargTa ganviTarebis tempebs.

monopolizaciis tendenciebi saerTaSoriso tu­rizmSi. calkeuli qveynis tu­ristuli bi­znesi sul uf­ro kar­gavs erovnul xasiaTs da internaci­onaluri xdeba. Ta­namedrove saerTaSoriso turi­z­mis ganviTare­baze mni­Sv­nelovan gavle­nas axdens ekonomikis am dargis saxel­mwifo regulireba. sa­er­Ta­Soriso turizmi iq­ca monopolisturi turis­tuli kom­paniebi­saTvis Se­kve­Tebis miRebis ZiriTad wyarod. saer­Ta­­­Soriso turizmis monopolis­turi tendenciebis aRmo­-fxvrisa da regulirebis mizniT Camoyalib­da saerTaSo­riso turistuli orga­niza­ciebi, romlebmac SeimuSaves samarT­leb­rivi normebi da nor­ma­tivebi.

Tanamedrove etapze mcire da saSualo turis­tul saage­ntoebs ar ZaluZT damoukideblad gaZ­lon saerTa­Sori­so konkurencias. amitom, isini eq­ce­vian msxvili turis­tuli kompaniebis kontrolis qveS, romlebic kapi­t­als abandeben `maRali teqno­logiebis mqone” swrafad ganvi­Tarebad turi­stul biznesSi: sastumroebisa da resto­r­nebis qselSi, energetikaSi, transportSi, infor­matikaSi. Tana­medrove saerTaSoriso turistul indu­stri­aSi mimdina­re pro­cesebis kontrolis amaRle­bis mizniT, sul ufro farTod gamoiyeneba monopolia­Ta urTier­T­kavSiris sis­tema. amdenad, bolo dros mniS­vnelov­nad amaRlda turis­tuli biznesis kon­centraciis done. turizmi msoflio meurneobis erT-erTi mo­no­polizirebuli sferoa.

saerTaSoriso turizmis regionalizaciis tende­nciebi. saer­TaSoriso turiz­mis ganviTarebis erT-erTi ga­mokveTili prio­rite­tia misi regiona­li­za­cia, rac ganpi­robebulia Soreuli mogzaurobisaT­vis saWiro satran­s­por­to danaxarjebis mkveTri zrdiT. agreTve XXI sau­kuneSi saerTa­So­ri­so tu­rizmis gan­viTarebis erT-erTi tendenciaa qveynebis mier turizmis sferoSi gaerTia­ne­bebis, aliansebi­sa da kavSirebis Camoyalibeba. organi­zebul tur­Tan SedarebiT gansa­ku­TrebiT izrdeba moT­xovna indivi­dualur mog­zaurebaze. gansakuTrebiT gaiza­rda Sida turizmis xvedriTi wili nacno­bebisa da na­Tesavebis mo­na­xulebis mizniT.

Tanamedrove etapze SeuZle­be­lia, mxolod sa­kuTar Zalebze dayrdnobiT, turizmis sfero­Si mo­nopolistur ko­nkuren­ci­aSi gaZleba, tur-pro­duq­ciis warmoebis sferoSi sxva qve­y­ne­bis teqni­­kur mi­R­wevaTa gamoyene­bis gareSe, rac kidev ufro zrdis turi­stuli infrastruq­turiT ganviTarebu­li qvey­nebis ur­TierT­damokidebule­bas, maT Soris ga­mar­Tul konkurencias. turistuli in­dustriiT maRal­ganviTarebul qveyneb­Si sul ufro Sei­mCneva moqa­laqeTa migraciis libe­ra­lizacia, turistu­li vi­zebis gace­maze SezRudvebis mo­x­sna. amdenad, tu­ri­stuli biznesis liberalizacia sa­erTaSo­riso turizmis umTavresi tendenciaa.

nawili 2.

saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi

 

turizmis msoflio organizaciis eqspertTa Tvalsa­zrisiT, 2020 wlisaTvis turizmi gaci­lebiT ufro met mas­Stabebs SeiZens, vidre iyo XX sau­kunis bolos. Tanamedro­ve saerTaSoriso turizmis stra­tegiuli ganviTarebis erT-erT mniSvnelovan ten­dencia iqneba tur-pro­duqtze fasebis zrda. tu­ris­tuli in­dust­ria, Semosavlebis mixedviT, aRmoC­ndeba pirvel adgilze, romelic gaaswrebs navTob­mompovebel da av­tomo­bilebis mwarmoebe­l darge­bsac ki. agreTve gaizrdeba, turistuli Tvalsaz­risiT, ga­nviTa­re­bu­li qveynebis keTi­ldReobac. tu­rizmis msoflio or­ganizaciis eqspertTa progno­zis Ta­naxmad, 2020 wlisTvis mosalodnelia evro­pis Semdeg, saer­TaSoriso turizmis mimarTul­ebis popularo­bis mixed­viT, meore adgili daika­vos aR­mosavleT aziam da wynari okeanis regionma.

 

saerTaSoriso turizmis strategiuli ganviTarebis mimarTulebani

 

turizmis msoflio or­gani­zaciis (tmo-is) mier ga­keTe­bul, turizmis ganvi­Tarebis prognozSi gan­sa­zRvrulia XXI saukunis turiz­mis yve­laze pers­peq­tuli mimarTu­le­be­bi. kerZod, 2020 wlisaTvis sa­va­ra­udod mso­flios yvelaze popu­laru­li turis­tu­li saxeebi gaxdeba: saTa­vgada­sav­lo-eko­logiu­ri, kul­turul-Seme­cnebiTi, Te­matu­ri da kruizu­li ture­­bi. amasTan erTad, SeiZ­leba ga­mo­iyos is faqtore­bic, romlebic savaraudod imoqme­deben mo­mavalSi saer­Ta­Soriso turizmis ganviTa­rebaze. ke­rZod, mas SeiZle­ba mivaku­TvnoT ZiriTadi geogra­fiu­li marS­rute­bi­dan Zalze da­Sorebuli adgile­bi, wynar okea­nis sa­mxreTiT mdebare kunZulebi, se­ismuri aq­tivoba, epidemi­ebi, xmeleTsa da kunZuleb­ze mtacebe­li cxove­lebis, okea­neSi ki – zvigenebis arse­boba da sxva saSiS­roebani.

miuxedavad imisa, rom Tanamedrove etapze gai­zarda turizmiT ganvi­Ta­re­bu­li qveynebis Semosav­lebi, saerTaSoriso turizmis strategiul ganvi­Tarebas mainc Seaferxebs iseTi faq­torebi, rogo­ricaa: ga­n­viTare­bad qveyneb­Si gamefe­buli samoqa­laqo om­ebi, ekonomikuri vardna, saerTaSo­riso te­roriz­mi da a. S. Tanamedrove saerTaSoriso turi­zmis ga­nviTarebis erT-erTi ZiriTa­di tendencia iq­neba mecnie­rul-te­q­nikuri progresis xa­rjze turi­s­tuli usa­f­rTxoe­bis donis amaRleba. es kidev uf­ro Seam­cirebs tu­ristul risk-faq­torebs. mecnie­rul-teqni­kuri progre­si kidev ufro aamaRlebs turiz­mis rols mTlian msof­lio meurneobaSi, ga­zrdis tu­ristuli produqciis xve­driT wils gan­viTareba­di qveynebis mTlian Sida pro­duqciaSi. ki­dev ufro ga­izrde­ba ekonomikis sxva dargebTan turizmis kore­laciis done. swo­red saerTaSoriso turizmi Seqmnis damate­­biT moTxov­nas adgilobriv nawa­rmze. ekonomikis rigi dargebi (kve­bis produq­tebis warmoeba, frin­vele­bis gamozrda, mSenebloba da a. S.) korelaciaSi Seva tu­rizmis dargTan. [1]

momavalSi kidev ufro amaRldeba eko-turizmis roli. gaumjobesdeba tu­ristu­li infrastruq­tura. Tanamgzavruli kavSirebis gamoye­nebiT, kavSirgab­mulobis sferoSi miRwe­uli progresi xels Seuw­yobs mudmivi mobiluri ka­vSirebis damyare­bas. Sei­qmneba erTiani sainformacio-sakomunikacio qseli, ri­Tac gaumjobe­s­deba turiste­bis adgilmdebareo­bis dadge­na. mniSvnelovnad gaia­­f­deba kavSirgabmu­lobis saSualebe­bi. igi xelmisawv­domi gaxdeba ri­giTi moqalaqeebisaTvis. sa­momavlod kavSirgabmu­lobis fasebi kidev Semcirdeba. ama Tu im qveynis erovnul ekonomikaSi turizmis adgili­s da rolis gan­sazRvrisaTvis, saWirod migvaCnia, gamoyenebuli iqnes tur-produqciis warmoebis moculobis Sefa­rde­ba mTliani Sida produ­qciis saerTo moculo­basTan. sa­e­r­TaSori­so turizmi mniSvnelovan gav­lenas moax­dens qveynis erov­nul Semo­savlebsa da ekonomikur zrdaze. ucxoeli tu­ristebi, adgilob­rivi produq­ciis moxmarebiT, `iribad” moaxdenen tu­ristuli produq­ciis eqsports, riTac xels Se­uwyo­ben misi warmoebis moculobis zrdas.

ucxoeli turistebi, adgilobrivi pro­duqciis mox­marebiT, xels Seuw­yoben damatebiTi samuSao adgilebis Seqmnas. radganac turistebis migra­ciis wmi­nda saldo SeiZ­le­ba iyos rogorc dadebiTi, ise uaryofiTi, ami­tom gare turistebis mig­ra­cia uSua­lo gavlenas moax­dens qveynis eko­nomikur aR­mavloba­ze. qveyana daintere­sebuli unda iyos mis partnior saxelmwifoTa eko­nomikuri aRmavlobiT, radganac movaWre qveynis Se­mo­savlebis zrda gamo­iwvevs misi mo­saxleobis msyidvelu­naria­nobis da Sesa­bamisad ma­Ti moqalaqeebis turi­stuli motiviT emigraciis, anu maT mier Cveni qveynis produq­ci­is gasaRebis mocu­lobis zrdas. areulobisa da eko­logiuri ga­remos gauare­sebis Si­SiT, ucxoel, gan­sxvavebuli tradiciebis mqone turi­steb­Tan damate­biTi konf­liqtebis Tavidan acile­bis mo­tivze day­rdnobiT Tu qveynis xeli­su­fleba SezRudavs tu­ristebis imigracias, amiT igi SezRu­davs produq­ciis eqs­ports, daakninebs adgilobriv warmoebas. amis sapasuxod, partnior qveyanasac SeuZlia gaa­ta­ros sapirispiro RonisZie­bebi, amiT daingreva, rogorc orive qveynis turistuli indust­ria, ise mTlianad sa­erTaSoriso turizmi. turi­stuli pro­duqti, romelic warsdgeba ba­za­rze monawileobs internacio­naluri Rire­bu­lebis fo­rmi­rebaSi. turizmis msoflio organizaci­is prognozis Tanax­mad, 2020 wlisTvis, Tanamedrove monacemebTan Sedare­biT, turis­tebis saerTaSoriso Camosvle­bis ricxvi Se­a­dgens 1,56 mlrd kacs, xolo maT mier tu­ristuli da­svenebisa da garTobisaTvis gadaxdi­li Tanxa ki _ 1,875 trln dolars, uaxles aTwleulSi turizmis dargi gansaku­Tre­biT gan­viTa­rdeba aziis re­gionSi, kerZod, ki CineT­Si, hon-kon­gsa da laTi­nuri ame­rikis qveyanaSi _­ meqsikaSi. saerTa­Soriso turizmis analiziT da­kave­buli eqspe­rtebis ga­TvlebiT, 2020 wlisTvis am sfe­ro­Si dasaqme­buli iqneba daaxloebiT 300 mln adamiani, rac iqneba im dro­indeli mosa­xleobis daaxloebiT 8,6%. am periodi­saTvis turistebisaT­vis yvelaze mimzidveli qveyana iq­neba CineTi. turi­zmis msoflio or­ganizaciis eqspertTa progno­zis Ta­naxmad,. uax­lesi 10 wlis ganma­vloba­Si msof­lio turiz­mis zrdis tempebi gadaa­Warbebs 4%s. ivarau­deba, rom XXI saukuniis 20-ian wlebSi sa­zRvao krui­zebi iqneba turizmis erT-erTi popu­laruli saxeoba aSS-Si, did britaneTsa da sxva qveynebSi.

turizmis strategiuli ganviTarebis Tvalsaz­risiT, Zalze perspeqtiulia CineTi, romelic am mxriv aviwroebs rogorc evropas, ise amerikas. sa­momavlod gaizrdeba agreTve TurqeTis rolic. igi CineTTan erTad, samomavlod regionSi Seqmnis `tu­ristul aminds”. am qveynebis turistuli gamocdi­leba sama­galiToa sxva turistuli centrebisaT­vis (Tu surT maT uaxloesi 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi dinamiuri ganviTareba). CineTi iqneba udavo lide­ri azia-wynari okeanis regionSi. igi ganuxrelad iwevs maRla msoflios sxva wamyvan turistul sa­xelmwifoTa Soris da turistebis Casvlebis mxriv, uaxlovdeba aSS-s, xolo turistuli Semosavlebis mixedviT _ did britaneTs.

uaxloesi aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi germania Sei­narCunebs wamyvan pozicias turistuli msyidvelu­narianobis mixedviT, romelic man waarTva aSS-s 2003 wels. unda aRiniSnos, rom am liderobis war­Tmeva ganapiroba savaluto faqtorebma _dolarTan SedarebiT evros kur­sis gamyarebam. am mxriv, meore adgils SeinarCunebs aSS., mesames _didi britaneTi, xolo iaponia, safrangeTi da italia ki gainawile­ben Sesabamisad, meoTxe, mexuTe da meeqvse adgi­lebs, radganac isini arian yvelaze msxvili baz­rebi, saerTaSoriso turistuli xarjebis mxriv. msyidvelunarianobis mixedviT I aTeu­lSi bolo oTx (me-7-e, me-8-e, me-9-e, me-10-e) ad­gilze iqnebian CineTi, ruseTi, kanada da niderlandebi.

turizmis msoflio rganizaciis mier 1995 wels warmodgenil moxsenebaSi _`turizmi: panorama 2020” gakeTebulia 25 wliani prognozi. miuxeda­vad imisa, rom 1995_2000 wlebSi saerTaSoriso tu­rizmis rea­luri zrdis tempebi bevrad aRemateboda progno­zirebuls, 2000-2005 wlebSi igi Secvala ganviTare­bis SedarebiT ufro dabalma tempebma.

2020 wels turistebis saerTo raodenobidan 1,18 mlrd mova Sigaregionul turizmze, xolo 377 mln ki Soreul manZilze mogzaur damsveneblebze. regionebis mixedviT, 2020 wlisaTvis sami mTavari mimRebi regioni iqneba evropa (717 mln turistiT), azia-wynari okeanis regioni (397 mln turistiT) da amerikis regioni (282 mln turistiT). maT Tanmimde­vrulad SemdgomSi mohyveba afrika, axlo aRmosav­leTi da samxreT azia. prognozirebis Tanaxmad, azia-wynari okeanis, samxreT aziisa da afrikis re­gionTa yovelwliuri zrdis tempi Seadgens saSua­lod 5%-s, msoflioSi 4,15%-iani saSualowliuri zrdis tempebis pirobebSi. am prognozis mixedviT, evropisa da aziis turistuli TvalsazrisiT, maRa­lganviTarebul regionebSi turistuli nakadebis zrdis tempebi msoflio saSualo maCvenebelTan Se­darebiT naklebi iqneba. bolo aTi wlis ganmavlo­baSi turizmis dargSi, Semosavlebis mixe­dviT, ev­ropa SeinarCu­nebs molidere pozicias, mag­ram misi xvedriTi wi­li 60%-dan 46%-mde Semcirde­ba. turiz­mis ganviTareba Soreul manZi­lze ufro swrafi tempebiT moxdeba, vidre Sigaregionulze. Sesabami­sad, Seicvleba Tanafardoba Sigaregionul turiz­msa da So­reul manZilze turizms Soris. Tu 1995 wels igi Seadgenda daaxloebiT 82-18-s 2020 wlisa­Tvis es maCvenebeli miuaxlovdeba 76-24-s.

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